Friday, April 21, 2017

Allan Holdsworth Passes At Age 70, R.I.P. Mr Holdsworth

This tribute doesn't begin to address Allan's contribution.

What he created was not a difference of degree, but of specie.

It's going to be decades analyzing and assessing his real value.

R.I.P. Mr Holdsworth, and thank you.

Here's another brief and early sample.


We'll be posting more.

Putin Sends Troops To Russia's Border With North Korea


North Korea has a population of 25 million people. If Li’l Kim is driven from power by a confrontation with the U.S., most of those people will be trying to escape Fat Boy’s utopia. China and Russia are re-enforcing their borders with NK in order to cope with a possible Nork mass migration.

Via Daily Mail:

Vladimir Putin is sending troops and equipment to Russia’s border with North Korea over fears the US is preparing to attack Kim Jong-un.

The Russian President fears there will be a huge exodus of North Korean refugees if his American counterpart, Donald Trump, launches military action against Pyongyang.

It comes days after it emerged that China is also sending 150,000 soldiers to its southern frontier to cope with the tidal wave of North Koreans Beijing fears would flee across the border if war breaks out.

This morning, footage emerged appearing to show how Putin is reinforcing his 11-mile border with North Korea by relocating troops and equipment.

A video purports to show one of three trains loaded with military equipment moving towards the 11 mile-long land frontier between Russia and the repressive state.

Another evidently highlights military helicopter movements towards the North Korean border and manoeuvres across rough terrain by army combat vehicles.

Other reports suggest there have been military moves by road as well.

There have been concerns that if a conflict breaks out Russia could face a humanitarian exodus from North Korea.

But Putin has been warned, too, that in the event of a US strike on Kim Jong-un’s nuclear facilities, contamination could swiftly reach Russia.

‘Railway trains loaded with military equipment moving towards Primorsky region via Khabarovsk have been noticed by locals,’ reported in the Russian far East – linking the development to the North Korean crisis.

‘The movement of military equipment by different means of transport to southern areas is being observed across Primorsky region over the past week,’ said military veteran Stanislva Sinitsyn.

Keep reading…

Thank You Daily Mail and Huck Funn. 

But according to the Democrats Trump is Putin's, . . . whatever.

So Now Who's Nutz? Report: Harvard Tells Students Gender Identity Can Change "Day To Day"

And where is it, again, that Psychiatric/Psychological OPINIONS of thoughts, moods, and behaviors being Incurable medical diseases germinate?


Trying to determine one’s gender from day to day must be a real challenge… especially for those brainiacs at Hahvad.

Via The Washington Times:

A Harvard University office devoted to LGBT issues reportedly has issued a flier telling students that gender identity can change as frequently as “day to day.”

The flier from the Ivy League schools BLGTQ Student Life office, headlined “Get the facts about gender diversity,” informs readers that “Sex assigned at birth and gender identity are not necessarily the same,” Campus Reform reported Thursday.

The flyer adds that “gender identity, gender expression, sexual orientation, hormonal makeup, physical anatomy, and/or how one is perceived in daily life.”

The document also seems to categorize speech that challenges or disagrees with transgenderism as “violence.”

“Transphobic misinformation is a form of systemic violence,” read the document, which included examples of the alleged verbal violence: “Fixed binaries and biological essentialism, manifest in gendered language, misgendering someone, and the policing of trans bodies, threaten the lives of trans people.”

The reference to “fixed binaries” appears to have in view the notion that a person’s gender identity is dependent on an unalterable binary — male or female — scheme.

According to the Oxford Reference website, “biological essentialism” is “The belief that ‘human nature’, an individual’s personality, or some specific quality (such as intelligence, creativity, homosexuality, masculinity, femininity, or a male propensity to aggression) is an innate and natural ‘essence’ (rather than a product of circumstances, upbringing, and culture).”

Keep reading…

Thank You Wash Times and Huck Funn.

Thursday, April 20, 2017

Muslim Screaming 'Allahu Akbar' Murders Three In Fresno


As usual, authorities aren’t sure whether or not it’s terrorism.

On Tuesday morning around 10:45AM, a Muslim named Kori Ali Muhammad walked through Fresno, California, shooting three men dead at random, including one in the parking lot of Catholic Charities. When he was arrested, he screamed “Allahu akbar.” According to the local ABC station, Fresno Police Chief Jerry Dyer “indicated it was ‘still too early’ to know if the shootings were an act of terrorism.”

Of course. And for those who refuse to acknowledge the nature or magnitude of the Islamic jihad against the West, it will always be too early, even if Kori Ali Muhammad presents Dyer with an ISIS membership card and a letter signed by Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi commanding him to carry out this attack. In this case, the familiar dance of denial by non-Muslim authorities intent on absolving Islam of all responsibility for the crimes done in its name and in accord with its teachings is not the central lesson of the attack – that sad charade has played out all too often in the past, and will many more times in the future, and there is nothing new to say about it.

The key story in the murders committed by Kori Ali Muhammad is that they constitute a jihad attack carried out by an apparent member of the Nation of Islam, the racist black supremacist pseudo-Islamic group headed by Louis Farrakhan. According to the Los Angeles Times, “a Facebook profile page for a Kori Ali Muhammad from Fresno paid homage to black pride and black nationalism, with images of the red, green and black Pan-African flag and images of a raised fist. The page listed him as a ‘warrior’ for RBG Nation, referencing red, black and green.”

What’s more, “in recent days, he repeatedly posted images to his frenetic Facebook page with the hashtag #LETBLACKPEOPLEGO. He referenced ‘white devils’ and praised melanoma skin cancer. In a post Monday, he wrote in all caps: ‘MY KILL RATE INCREASES TREMENDOUSLY ON THE OTHER SIDE ASÈ ALLAH U AKBAR.’ Shortly before that, he posted: ‘BLACK WARRIORS MOUNT UP AND RIDE OUT *ASÈ* #LETBLACKPEOPLEGO.’” Ase, according to the Times, “is a term from the Yoruba people of Nigeria, referencing a concept that there is power in our spirituality, words and feelings.” Muhammad also referred to “white devils” and the Nation of Islam’s mythical evil figure who created white people, Mr. Yakub.

If Muhammad is indeed a member of the Nation of Islam, he demonstrates yet again how members of the Nation of Islam, even though orthodox Sunni and Shia Muslims consider the Nation a heretical sect, can identify with the global jihad, and place themselves in its service. The most notorious example of this is the Beltway Sniper, John Allen Muhammad, who along with his accomplice, Lee Boyd Malvo, murdered seventeen people in sniper attacks in the Washington, D.C. area in October 2002. Muhammad had joined the Nation of Islam in 1987; Malvo was discovered to have kept notebooks in which he drew portraits of Osama bin Laden and other jihadis and declared his determination to wage jihad himself.

When Nation of Islam leader Louis Farrakhan spoke at the Nation’s annual gathering in Detroit last February, attendees greeted him with thunderous cries of “Allahu akbar” and listened raptly as Farrakhan railed against not against the Nation’s bogey, white people, but against the Jews: “I want to disabuse the Jews today of the false claim that you are the chosen of God — that Israel or Palestine belongs to you. I want to disabuse you of that. I’m going to tell you about your future. You that think you have power to frighten and dominate the peoples of the world. I’m here to announce the end of your time.”

He has, of course, spoken this way many times before. That Farrakhan would so often use the platform of his racist cult to attack the Jews suggests that he is interested in currying favor with mainstream Muslims who are well aware of how deeply embedded anti-Semitism is in the Qur’an. Orthodox Islam does not blame the evils of the world on white people, but the Nation’s Jew-hatred is certainly mainstream Islam, and an indication of how the Nation is often a way station: African-American men convert to it and then pass from it into orthodox Sunni groups, or turn to jihad even without doing so. Kori Ali Muhammad is just the latest example of this.

If authorities ever decide that the random shooting of three non-Muslims by a Muslim screaming “Allahu akbar” might possibly be terrorism, they might begin investigations that would make all this clear to them and help them prevent it from happening in the future. But nothing seems much less likely. 

Thank You Mr Spencer and FPM.

Jazz Break: Bruford: Gradually Going Tornado

Apocalyptic Progressivism

Victor Davis Hanson

Shortly after the 2008 election, President Obama's soon-to-be chief of staff, Rahm Emanuel, infamously declared, "You never let a serious crisis go to waste."

He elaborated: "What I mean by that (is) it's an opportunity to do things you think you could not do before."

Disasters, such as the September 2008 financial crisis, were thus seen as opportunities. Out of the chaos, a shell-shocked public might at last be ready to accept more state regulation of the economy and far greater deficit spending. Indeed, the national debt doubled in the eight years following the 2008 crisis.

During the 2008 campaign, gas prices at one point averaged over $4 a gallon. Then-candidate Obama reacted by pushing a green agenda -- as if the cash-strapped but skeptical public could be pushed into alternative energy agendas.

Obama mocked then-Republican vice presidential candidate Sarah Palin's prescient advice to "drill, baby, drill" -- as if Palin's endorsement of new technologies such as fracking and horizontal drilling could never ensure consumers plentiful fuel.

Instead, in September 2008, Steven Chu, who would go on to become Obama's secretary of energy, told the Wall Street Journal that, "Somehow we have to figure out how to boost the price of gasoline to the levels in Europe."

In other words, if gas prices were to reach $9 or $10 a gallon, angry Americans would at last be forced to seek alternatives to their gas-powered cars, such as taking the bus or using even higher-priced alternative fuels.

CARTOONS | Glenn McCoy
View Cartoon

When up for re-election in 2012, President Obama doubled down on his belief that gas was destined to get costlier: "And you know we can't just drill our way to lower gas prices."

Yet even as Obama spoke, U.S. frackers were upping the supply and reducing the cost of gas -- despite efforts by the Obama administration to deny new oil drilling permits on federal lands.

U.S oil production roughly doubled from 2008 to 2015. And by 2017, the old bogeyman of "peak oil" production had been put to rest, as the U.S. became nearly self-sufficient in fossil fuel production.

Viewing the world in apocalyptic terms was also useful during the California drought.

In March 2016, even as the four-year drought was over and California precipitation had returned to normal, Gov. Jerry Brown was still harping on the connection between "climate change" and near-permanent drought.

"We are running out of time because it's not raining," Brown melodramatically warned. "This is a serious matter we're experiencing in California, as kind of a foretaste."

Foretaste to what, exactly?

In 2017, it rained and snowed even more than it had during a normal year of precipitation in 2016.

Currently, a drenched California's challenge is not theoretical global warming, but the more mundane issue of long-neglected dam maintenance that threatens to undermine overfull reservoirs.

Brown had seen the drought as a means of achieving the aim of regimenting Californians to readjust their lifestyles in ways deemed environmentally correct. The state refused to begin work on new reservoirs, aqueducts and canals to be ready for the inevitable end of the drought, even though in its some 120 years of accurate record keeping California had likely never experienced more than a four-year continuous drought.

And it did not this time around either.

Instead, state officials saw the drought as useful to implement permanent water rationing, to idle farm acreage, and to divert irrigation water to environmental agendas.

Well before this year's full spring snowmelt, over 50 million acre-feet of water has already cascaded out to sea ("liberated," in green terms). The lost freshwater was greater than the capacity of all existing (and now nearly full) man-made reservoirs in the state, and its loss will make it harder to deal with the next inevitable drought

No matter: Progressive narratives insisted that man-caused carbon releases prompted not only record heat and drought, but within a few subsequent months also record coolness and precipitation.

And in Alice in Wonderland fashion, just as drilling was supposedly no cure for oil shortages, building reservoirs was no remedy for water scarcity.

In the same manner, neglecting the maintenance and building of roads in California created a transportation crisis. Until recently, the preferred solution to the state's road mayhem and gridlock wasn't more freeway construction but instead high-speed rail -- as if substandard streets and highways would force millions of frustrated drivers to use expensive state-owned mass transit.

These days, shortages of credit, water, oil or adequate roads are no longer seen as age-old challenges to a tragic human existence. Instead of overcoming them with courage, ingenuity, technology and scientific breakthroughs, they are seen as existential "teachable moments."

In other words, crises are not all bad -- if they lead the public to more progressive government.

Thank You Townhall and Professor Hanson.

ISIS Starves Civilians To Force Them Into Fighting For The Caliphate


Sadly, this is one of the least worst things they do.

Via Daily Caller:

The Islamic State is withholding food and water from citizens in Mosul in an effort to force them into joining the terrorist organization, according to an Iraqi non-profit.

The beleaguered terrorist organization has suffered personnel and territory losses since the U.S.-backed Iraqi Security Forces began operations to retake Mosul in October. Combat operations in Mosul have led to intense, street-to-street fighting in the city’s western area. ISIS is now forcibly conscripting the thousands of locals who remain by withholding food and water, according to a report by the Iraqi Observatory for Human Rights.

“An infant and its sister [have] died last week in Uruba neighborhood due to lack of food,” the report stated. “Now their mother is facing the same fate as she is in a very bad health condition.”

Some local civilians have given into ISIS to survive.

Keep reading…

Thank You DC and Zip. 

And yet there are still people who have a problem with other people who have a problem with this.

GM Halts Operations In Venezuela After Factory Seized


Venezuela is a case study in the failure of socialism.

Via The Detroit News:

Detroit — General Motors has stopped doing business in Venezuela after authorities took control of its only factory there in what GM called an illegal judicial seizure of its assets.

The plant was confiscated on Wednesday as anti-government protesters clashed with authorities in a country that is roiling in economic troubles such as food shortages and triple-digit inflation.

The Detroit automaker said in a statement Thursday that other assets such as vehicles were taken from the plant, causing irreparable damage to the company.

GM says the plant was taken in disregard of its right to due process. The company says it will defend itself legally and that it’s confident that justice eventually will prevail.

GM has about 2,700 workers in the troubled country, where it’s been the market leader for over 35 years. It also has 79 dealers that employ 3,900 people, and its parts suppliers make up more than half of Venezuela’s auto parts market, the company said.

If the government permits it, workers will get separation benefits “arising from the termination of employment relationships due to causes beyond the parties’ control,” the GM statement said.

Dealers will continue to service vehicles and provide parts, the company said.

GM’s Venezuelan operations have been a drag on earnings for several years. In the second quarter of 2015, the company took a $720 million charge for currency devaluation and asset valuation write-downs as the economy faltered.

South American operations, which include Venezuela, account for a relatively small portion of GM’s earnings and sales. Last year the company lost $400 million before taxes in South America, but as a whole the company made a pretax profit of $12.5 billion. GM sold just over 583,000 vehicles in the region last year, but that was only about 6 percent of its total sales.

Keep reading…

Thank You Huck Funn and Detroit News.

And to this very day, we are Still hearing from Coffee House Marxists that the reason Socialism has never worked, ever, everywhere it's been implemented, is because 'The Movement Was Hijacked By Capitalists.'

But it will work this time, because we're Finally going to get 'Our People' in. The Good Totalitarians.

Oh Dear Gawd.

LePen Vows To Stamp Out 'Poison' of Islamism In Final Rally Before French Election


If Le Pen wins, the EU is toast and France will reclaim its borders and sovereignty. The election is on April 23rd and if no candidate receives a 50 percent majority, there will be a May 7 runoff between the top 2 candidates.

Via Breitbart:

PARIS (AP) — Right-wing presidential candidate Marine Le Pen vowed on Wednesday to end the fear of terrorism in France and stamp out the “poison” of Islamic radicals, holding her final rally in the southern port city of Marseille, where police arrested two men a day earlier on suspicion of plotting an attack around this weekend’s vote.

Independent centrist candidate Emmanuel Macron, who was at the top of a recent poll, reached out to the Muslim community for solutions.

With four days until Sunday’s first round of the presidential election, candidates blanketed the country ahead of the nail-biting election. Tight security was the order of the day for Le Pen and other top candidates.

The populist Le Pen, a leading candidate, called for a “national insurrection, peaceful and democratic … to give France back to its people.”

Police scuffled with ultra-left and anti-Le Pen protesters heading to her rally.

Gaspard Flamant, 26, said he feared Le Pen could win. “We saw (President Donald) Trump, we saw Brexit … so I’m mistrustful,” he said.

Le Pen has in the past expressed hope that the anti-system momentum would rub off on her. However, she has recently lost the leader’s edge in polls.

Socialist candidate Benoit Hamon promised that if he won France’s presidency he would give asylum to Edward Snowden, the former U.S. National Security Agency contractor who has taken refuge in Moscow since revealing details of secret U.S. government eavesdropping programs in 2013.

Keep reading…

Thank You Breitbart and Huck Funn. 

Eurabia: 50 Million Muslims In Europe And 80% Are Living On Welfare.

Good Luck to our friends in France.

Shooting Attack In Paris: 2 Police Officers Shot: 2 Attackers: Previously Identified as 'Extremist'


Via NY Post:
A police officer was killed and another wounded in a wild shooting on Paris’ busiest street, according to reports.
The cops were stopped at a red light on the Champs Elysee — a bustling boulevard popular with tourists and famed for its luxury stores and eateries — when the gunman drove by at around 9 pm, the police union told the Express.
At least two people were involved in the shooting — one of them was also killed while the other is on the lam, the paper reports.
A government spokesman thinks the officers may have been deliberately targeted, Reuters reports.
The shooting comes just days before the country’s presidential elections, and less than two years after the terrorist attacks that killed 130 people in the French capital.
“It looks like another terrorist attack. What can you say? It never ends,” President Trump said during an unrelated press conference.

Gee, who would have guessed? This is now a commonality of many of these attacks. “He was known to the authorities.”

Thank You Nick, CBS, Reuters, NY Post, and Breaking 911.

Wednesday, April 19, 2017

Trump Signs Bill Allowing Veterans To Seek Care Outside Broken VA System


That makes me happy that finally some of the VA issues may be addressed. But there’s still a lot more to do.

[Ed; Agreed, but at least Someone has finally Done Something, a Major Something, that's a correct, Something.]

Via Washington Examiner:

President Trump signed legislation Wednesday that will dramatically expand a program at the Department of Veterans Affairs that lets patients seek care from private doctors if they want to bypass the troubled VA system.

The Veterans Choice Improvement Act removes barriers that Congress placed around the original “choice” initiative and eliminates an expiration date that would have shuttered the program in August.

Lawmakers created the choice program in 2014 after a massive scandal involving wait time cover-ups at more than 100 VA facilities around the country. It was initially structured as a two-year pilot program that limited when and where veterans could choose to see private doctors. Patients could only use the choice program if they lived more than 40 miles from the nearest VA hospital or if they could not get an appointment from their local VA facility within 30 days.

Keep reading…

Thank You Wash Ex, Nick,  and Mr President..

Major Insurance Co. Ditches ObamaCare, Profits Soar


What a coincidence.

Via Daily Caller:

UnitedHealthcare Group’s quarterly profit skyrocketed after the insurance provider drastically downsized its participation in the Obamacare exchanges.

The company’s profit rose by 35 percent in the first-quarter of 2017, and expanded nearly every aspect of its operation, including its participation in Medicare Advantage and Medicaid plans, The Associated Press reports.

In total, UnitedHealth brought in $2.17 billion in first-quarter earnings, with $48.72 billion in revenue. Shares of UnitedHealth are up 1.08 percent as of 2:12 p.m. Tuesday afternoon.

Keep reading…

Thank You Zip and DC.

Tuesday, April 18, 2017

California Secession Movement Collapses After Leader Moves To Russia

Don’t let that stop you. Via AP:

Supporters of one long-shot bid to make California an independent nation ended their effort on Monday, while another group said it will launch a new campaign for a statewide vote next year.

The drive to make the nation’s most populous state its own country, with what would be the world’s sixth-largest economy, has drawn extra interest after last year’s election of Republican Donald Trump as president.

But the Yes California Independence Campaign faltered after its president, Louis Marinelli, revealed ties to Russia. Marinelli said in a lengthy message to supporters Monday that he is seeking permanent residence in Russia because of his “frustration, disappointment and disillusionment with the United States.”

The secretary of state’s office confirmed that Marcus Ruiz Evans, the group’s vice president, withdrew the California Nationhood ballot measure.

Keep reading…

Thank You AP and Zip.

This was a tough post.

Our fingers had trouble finding the right keys, we were laughing so hard.

Risperdal Lawsuits Currently Underway In Pennsylvania

digital journal

The seventh of the trials involving Risperdal is currently underway in the Court of Common Pleas in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Cases involving the drug have been ongoing for quite some time and many are still being filed.

According to a representative for, this current trial will be followed by many more. "Unless the company settles out of court, we should expect to see tons of these trials over the next few years."

The company in question is pharmaceutical giant Johnson & Johnson, which manufactures Risperdal. The drug is an atypical antipsychotic that was initially approved to treat schizophrenia as well as other psychiatric disorders. The drug was approved for use in children in 2006, although it has been marketed since the mid 1990's. Many of the more than 5,000 lawsuits pending involving Risperdal involve men who were given the medication as a child, before it was approved for such use in 2006.

The drug allegedly causes gynecomastia in men and boys. This is a condition that causes enlargement of the glands in the breast. The case currently being tried involves a plaintiff who states that he developed female like breasts after being prescribed the drug in 2002 to treat symptoms associated with Asperger's syndrome. The plaintiff was eight years old in 2002, a full four years before the drug was approved for use with children.

"We're seeing many cases just like this," states the representative for "These are cases in which this drug was given to small children before it was even approved to be given to them, and the consequences of those actions are astounding."

Johnson & Johnson recently reported that they have received nearly 20,000 product liability claims that state plaintiffs had endured injuries and complications after taking Risperdal. A total of six trials involving Risperdal have concluded so far in Pennsylvania with many more currently set to go to trial. The representative for urges those who have taken this drug and experienced these side effects to reach out to a representative and inquire about filing a claim. More on the topic can be seen on the organization's official website.



Thank You Digital Journal and

also from Digital Journal

Risperdal Lawsuit Filings May End In Settlement

And from Forbes

Philadelphia Flooded With New Risperdal Lawsuits; Trials Split But Include Massive Verdict 

Pew Poll Puts Ryan's Approval Lower The Boehner, Pelosi, Gingrich

posted at 8:01 pm on April 17, 2017 by Allahpundit

It’s also lower than Trump’s, notes WaPo’s Amber Phillips. Trump is at 39 percent in this poll, a dismal number for a president at any stage but especially during what’s supposed to be his “honeymoon period” with voters. And still, he’s fully 10 points better than Ryan.

How many different contributing factors are there for Ryan’s garbage numbers? I can think of at least four.

His approval rating isn’t wildly different from Boehner’s or Pelosi’s. His disapproval rating, though? Hoo boy. Contributing factor one: He was, of course, the quarterback for the GOP’s much-hated health-care bill, which was polling at a breezy 17 percent approval right before it went down in flames. That was a double whammy for Ryan, evidence that not only couldn’t he concoct a broadly popular plan, he couldn’t even succeed where Democrats had succeeded by getting it through the House. After that, the question isn’t so much why 54 percent disapprove of him, it’s why 29 percent approve.

Contributing factor two: Unlike the other three former Speakers listed, Ryan’s a former VP nominee. The bigger a politician’s national profile, the stronger partisan feelings about him are likely to run. On top of that, Ryan distinguished himself in Congress as an ideologue among ideologues, a guy so frantic to address America’s debt crisis that he was willing to not only touch the third rail of entitlement reform, he was willing to be the face of it in D.C. The more a pol is thought of as an ideological warrior, the more likely it is that voters, who normally don’t pay much attention to individual congressmen, are likely to have an opinion about him. Case in point: Newt, leader of the 1994 Republican revolution, had more robust approval and disapproval ratings than either Pelosi or Boehner.

Contributing factor three: Unlike Newt, Ryan is dealing with a divided party, one whose populist-nationalist wing regards him as little better than a Democrat. That’s the secret ingredient to his low approval rating. Where Gingrich and even Boehner could count on solid support from within their own parties, Ryan’s position is more complicated. Gingrich polled at 62/23 among Republicans in 1995, a net approval of +39. Boehner polled at 54/19 in 2011 for a comparable +35. Ryan polls at … 51/31, a +20 net. In fairness, given the party’s establishment/populist and globalist/nationalist splits, it may be that any Republican Speaker these days would be doomed to start lower than Gingrich or Boehner. (Although Boehner came to be loathed by the right-wing grassroots too, his ascendancy to the Speakership in 2011 coincided with the GOP taking back the House after four years out of power, exuberance over which likely boosted his ratings.) But because Ryan is a lightning rod for populists, he likely starts even worse than a generic Republican would.

Contributing factor four: Cliche though it may be, we live in an age of high political polarization. A Republican as prominent as Ryan would have been a hate object for the left no matter what, but toss in his Romney pedigree and his Medicare-cutting ambitions and he’s doomed to pitiful numbers among Democrats. Newt Gingrich was the most famous Republican in America during the eight years between Bush 41 and Bush 43, and even Newt polled higher among Dems in 1995 than Ryan does now: Gingrich pulled a 27/61 rating versus a brutal 13/75 for Ryan. Trump’s phenomenal unpopularity among Democrats is probably also connected here, either as cause (dragging down the party) or effect (hatred for all things Republican). If you can believe it, Trump polls at just seven percent with Democratic voters; to put that in perspective, the next-lowest number among voters from the minority party for any president in April of his first year dating back to Reagan is 24 percent, which Republicans gave to Bill Clinton in 1993. We’ve never seen a modern president as roundly hated by the opposition so early as Trump is by Dems right now. There’s surely spillover from that into Ryan’s ratings too, especially given their high-profile collaboration on health care.

Thank You ALLAHPUNDIT and Hot Air.

Thursday, April 13, 2017

U.N. Peacekeeping Forces Rampant Child Rape Problem Continues

Remember who and what we're talking about the next time Trump says something about cutting U.S. taxpayer support to the U.N.


These crimes are continuing in just about every country where U.N. peacekeeping forces are present, yet I haven’t heard of a single rapist being arrested, tried or convicted. 
Via Daily Caller:
A Wednesday report by the Associated Press sheds further light on the extensive child rape problem that exists within the United Nations peacekeeping forces.
The expose focuses on U.N. peacekeepers operating in Haiti, where nearly 2,000 allegations of sexual abuse have occurred since 2004, with more than 300 cases involving children. A large number of the victims included boys and girls as young as 12 years old, many of whom were raped by peacekeepers on a regular basis.
“I did not even have breasts,” one girl, known as V01, or Victim No.1, told the AP. She said she was consistently raped by as many as 50 U.N. peacekeepers from ages 12 to 15.
Janila Jean was a 16-year-old virgin when a Brazilian peacekeeper lured her into a U.N. compound with some bread smeared with peanut butter. Once inside, he raped her at gunpoint. The attack left her pregnant, and she now raises her child alone.
“Some days, I imagine strangling my daughter to death,” she told investigators.
V09, a boy, said he was 15 when Sri Lankan peacekeepers began raping him. He reported having sexual encounters with more than 100 of them over three years, averaging approximately four a day.
A teenage boy told investigators that he was gang-raped by Uruguayan peacekeepers in 2011. The soldiers filmed the alleged rape on a cell phone.
Haiti is one of the poorest and most destitute countries in the western hemisphere. The country fell into chaos after former President Jean-Bertrand Aristide went into exile after an armed conflict ravaged the country. The U.N. began the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH) shortly thereafter on June 1, 2004. Haiti again suffered disaster on Jan. 12, 2010 when an earthquake killed 220,000 people.
The desperation suffered by Haitians created an environment where sexual predators could easily bribe children into sexual acts with the equivalent of 75 cents or a cookie. In one case, Sri Lankan peacekeepers set up a sex ring involving nine children.
Keep reading…

Thank You DC and Huck Funn

Detroit Area E.R. Doctor Charged By Dept of Justice With Performing Genital Mutilation On Girls 6-8 Years Old


Guess what part of the world she hails from. Go on, guess. I’ll wait….

HT Buzzfeed:

Thank You Zip.

Not your father's Marcus Welby.

Julian Bream: 20th Century Guitar

Well worth the little bits of surface noise. 

Madonna's on CD.

This is on vinyl. 

"People don't know what they like."
"They like what they know."
Howard Roberts, studio musician (lots of TV work) and educator.

A quick check at Amazon reveals that this is available on CD if you want it.

Brahms Break: Symphony 4: Happy Easter!

Monday, April 10, 2017

Budget Director To Tell Federal Agencies To Plan For Major Cuts: Report

Well now if this don't just light up the candles on our cake.


One of the main reasons they didn’t want Trump, they didn’t want to shake any of this up or start whacking agencies and expenses.
Via The Hill:
White House budget chief Mick Mulvaney will this week send a memo to federal agencies instructing them to prepare for future cuts to funding and staff, according to a new report.
The guidance letter, Axios reported on Sunday, was set forth by the executive order President Trump signed last month for “reorganizing the executive branch.”
The order calls to “improve the efficiency, effectiveness, and accountability of the executive branch by directing the Director of the Office of Management and Budget to propose a plan to reorganize governmental functions and eliminate unnecessary agencies, components of agencies and agency programs.”
Keep reading…

Thank You The Hill and Nick.

No Joke: College Students Fear Chick-fil-A Will Jeopardize Their Safe Spaces

Institute of Higher Indoctrination.

Ideological crap holes where political illnesses are manured into full blown Government sanctioned and protected Civil Rights Crimes.

Can't buy a work license as a PsyD or PhD without spending a bundle and regurgitating the reigning paradigm at one of them.


Chicken-sh*t college students not brave enough to stand up to a chicken sandwich.

Via Campus Reform:

Student senators at Duquesne University are lobbying for the cancellation of plans to bring Chick-fil-A to campus in the fall, saying they “fear” for the safety of their peers.
ColleThe popular fast-food chain came under fire in 2012 after its president, Dan Cathy, admitted his company was “guilty as charged” for donating to organizations opposed to same-sex marriage, prompting years of protests by LGBT activists, especially on college campuses.
Campus Reform reported in 2015, for instance, that the Student Government Association at Johns Hopkins University demanded the removal of Chick-fil-A from campus, calling its presence a “microaggression,” though outrage slowly died down as IRS filings showed the company had virtually cancelled its donations to organizations opposing same-sex marriage.
Now, however, Duquesne University Student Senator Niko Martini has reignited concerns over the company’s past by proposing a resolution at the Student Government Association’s (SGA) March 26 meeting to nix the restaurant from a list of proposed overhauls to the school’s dining options.
“Chick-fil-A has a questionable history on civil rights and human rights,” Martini remarked in a statement to The Duquesne Duke. “I think it’s imperative [that] the university chooses to do business with organizations that coincide with the [university’s] mission and expectations they give students regarding diversity and inclusion.”
While Martini’s initial resolution ultimately failed, the SGA did agree to consider an alternate resolution that would allow for a vetting process of the on-campus Chick-fil-A, according to The Duke.
Keep reading…

Thank You Campus Reform and Huck Funn.


Another money saving option.

If the University bans Chick-fil-A for this reason, pull any and all Government Funding from them.

Government is prohibited by the 1st Amendment from taking any official notice of Religious Beliefs, one way or the other.

Saturday, April 8, 2017

EUGENICS WATCH: China's Population Policy Still Enforced By 'Coercive Abortions and Sterilizations'


And yet we've let the Left drag us so far off the rails here in the States that 4 out of 10 Americans today believe that Statism/Socialism is the Road To Salvation.

"Piddyful, juss Piddyful."
Jed Clampett

By Terence P. Jeffrey | April 7, 2017 | 3:09 PM EDT 

( - The Communist government of the People’s Republic of China continues to impose a “coercive birth-limitation policy” that is enforced by “measures such as mandatory pregnancy examinations and coercive abortions and sterilizations,” according to the Country Report on Human Rights in China released by President Donald Trump’s State Department.

President Trump had dinner with Chinese President Xi Jinping at Mar-a-Lago in Palm Beach, Fla., on Thursday evening.

China changed its coercive family planning policy last year by lifting the limit on children from one per couple to two per couple.

To make sure women do not have more children than the Communist government believes they should, the government engages in both forced birth control and forced abortion.

“The government considers intrauterine devices (IUDs) and sterilization to be the most reliable form of birth control and compelled women to accept the insertion of IUDs by officials,” said the State Department report.

“As in prior years,” said the State Department, “population control policy continued to rely on social pressure, education, propaganda, and economic penalties as well as on measures such as mandatory pregnancy examinations and coercive abortions and sterilizations.”

The State Department reported, for example, that provincial regulations in Hunan state: “Pregnancies that do not conform to the conditions established by the law should promptly be terminated. For those who have not promptly terminated the pregnancy, the township people’s government or subdistrict office shall order that the pregnancy be terminated by a deadline.”

“Other provinces, such as Guizhou, Jiangxi, Qinghai, and Yunnan,” said the State Department, “maintained provisions that require 'remedial measures,' an official euphemism for abortion, to deal with pregnancies that violate the policy.”

China still sees more male than female babies born, which the State Department attributed to both cultural factors and the child-limitation policy.

“According to the National Bureau of Statistics of China,” said the report, “the sex ratio at birth was 113 males to 100 females in 2016, a decline from 2013, when the ratio was 116 males for every 100 females. Sex identification and sex-selective abortion are prohibited, but the practices continued because of traditional preference for male children and the birth-limitation policy.’

Baby girls who are not killed in a gender-based abortion could then face hazards including infanticide and abandonment, the State Department reported.

“Female infanticide, gender-biased abortions, and the abandonment and neglect of baby girls were declining but continued to be a problem in some circumstances due to the traditional preference for sons and the birth-limitation policy,” said the report.

The law in the People’s Republic of China, according to the State Department, prohibits people with “certain mental disabilities” from marrying and unborn babies discovered to have a disability in utero could be subjected to a government-mandated abortion.

“The law forbids the marriage of persons with certain mental disabilities, such as schizophrenia,” says the State Department report. “If doctors found that a couple was at risk of transmitting congenital disabilities to their children, the couple could marry only if they agree to use birth control or undergo sterilization. In some instances officials continued to require couples to abort pregnancies when doctors discovered possible disabilities during prenatal examinations. The law stipulates that local governments must employ such practices to raise the percentage of births of children without disabilities.’

In a background briefing at the White House on Tuesday, senior administration officials suggested that human rights would not be a central element of Trump’s discussions with the Chinese leader when he visited Mar-a-Lago.

A report asked if “religious persecution in China” was something that the U.S. would bring up in the meeting.

A senior administration official responded that he thought it was more likely the Chinese leader would bring it up than Trump would.

“I think to the degree that issue is brought up, it would be brought up, I would expect, by the Chinese as opposed to the United States,” said the official. “We’re obviously aware of the issues and prepared to address it, but it’s not something that that I would anticipate we’re going to be raising.”

“And again, I’m not going to pre-speak the president’s talking points,” said a senior administration official. “We’ll see what is concretely discussed, but human rights are integral to who we are as Americans. It is the reason that we have alliances at the end of the day, one of the reasons in addition to the fact that they serve our security and prosperity here at home. And human rights issues I would expect will continue to be brought up in the relationship.”

The full State Department Country Report on Human Rights in China can be read by clicking here.

Thank You Mr Jeffrey and CNS.

JNJ To Get The Public Exposure They Deserve: America's Most Admired Law Breaker To Become TV Serial

Corporate Crime Reporter

Steven Brill On Johnson & Johnson America's Most Admired Law Breaker

By Editor Filed in News April 6th, 2017 @ 11:07 am

What was cable television’s most watched drama in 2016?

The FX blockbuster — The People v. OJ Simpson.

Now being streamed by millions on Netflix.

America is consumed by high profile crime.

Which raises the question.

Why not high profile corporate crime?

That proposition will be put to the test next year.

Steven Brill – founder of the American Lawyer magazine and Court TV – has written a gripping account of a corporate crime – titled America’s Most Admired Lawbreaker.

That would be Johnson & Johnson.

When asked why America’s Most Admired Lawbreaker can’t be as riveting as the People v. OJ Simpson, Brill doesn’t miss a beat.

“It can be,” Brill told Corporate Crime Reporter in an interview last week.

“I did sell the movie rights to it,” he says matter of factly. “It is going to be made into a serial on one of the television outlets. That’s all I can tell you. Probably in six months to a year you will see it. It is harder to get eyeballs to it than OJ, but I think we are going to succeed.”

In America’s Most Admired Lawbreaker, Brill tells the story of the biggest and the most admired corporation in the world’s most prosperous industry – healthcare – a company known for “consumer products from Band-Aids to baby powder, Neutrogena to Rogaine, Listerine to Visine, Aveeno to Tylenol and Sudafed to Splenda.”

“But the real money — about 80 percent of its revenue and 91 percent of its profit,” Brill writes, “comes not from those consumer favorites, but from Johnson & Johnson’s high-margin medical devices: artificial hips and knees, heart stents, surgical tools and monitoring devices – and from still higher margin prescription drugs targeting Crohn’s disease (Remicade), cancer (Zytiga, Velcade), schizophrenia (Risperdal), diabetes (Invokana), psoriasis (Stelara), migraines (Topamax), heart disease (Xarelto) and attention deficit disorder (Concerta).”

Brill focuses Johnson & Johnson’s corporate crime of selling Risperdal off label.

Continue Reading.

This could become a broadcast history making event and is sure to be one you don't want to miss. 

Because unlike the Hollywood action flicks with corporate bad guys, its not someone else they're predating upon.

It's you, and its real.

Ask your Doctor if Risperdal might be right for you, and you'll find out just how real  that danger is in a drop dead heartbeat.

Thank You Mr Brill and Corporate Crime Reporter.

Still not sold? 

Set up a Risperdal Alert in your gmail acct.

Pharmacies all over the place flood ours every day with offers for 'Cheap (generic) Risperdal' Online. No Prescription Needed.

Soviet Style Abuse of Psychiatry Is Now Practiced In The United States 

Friday, April 7, 2017

Swedish Soccer Houligans Don Niqabs To Sidestep Ban On Masks

weaselzippers Well Done Gentlemen.

Here's background from frontpagemag explaining why.


Posing a quandary for the Swedish government.

Via TOI:

A group of Swedish soccer fans wore Muslim head coverings to a match on Sunday in order to get around a new law banning masks at matches to crack down on violence.

The new legislation, spearheaded by Interior Minister Anders Ygeman, requires everyone to show their faces during soccer matches and went into effect on March 1. However, exceptions to the law are made for officials such a police or fire fighters in the line of duty, and for those covering their faces for religious reasons.

A group of hard-core fans from AIK took advantage of the loophole and attended the first game of the season, against Häcken, wearing niqab, a black full-face covering worn by some Muslim women.

The fans, known as ultras, made their message clear by holding up a banner which read, “AIK’s ultras mean well, we’re now wearing masks for religious reasons,” Swedish news site The Local reported.

Keep reading…

Thank You TOI, frontpagemag, and Dapandico.

Withdrawal From Mood Stabilizers

by Emily Wheeler

Editor’s note: We know that our reviews of the withdrawal literature are incomplete, and we urge readers to help us add to them. Please send study citations that are relevant to the withdrawal literature for mood stabilizers to
The class of drugs known as “mood stabilizers” is a disparate group of medications with different theorized mechanisms of action and effects. The classification of mood stabilizer is itself contested, with no standardized definition. This document will review the drugs lithium and the “antiepileptic” or “anticonvulsant” medications carbamazepine, lamotrigine, and valproate/divalproex/sodium valproate. As the longest prescribed drug in the class, lithium is the most thoroughly researched, although areas of needed research exist across this class of drugs as a whole. 
Mechanism of Action
Various theories of the mechanisms of action of lithium and other mood stabilizers have been proposed, but no prevailing or unifying theory has been established. Thus is it unknown how the neurochemical effects of these drugs result in any therapeutic effects, nor how their withdrawal might affect users.
1) Balon R, Yeragani VK, Pohl RB, Gershon S. Lithium discontinuation: withdrawal or relapse? Compr Psychiatry 1988;29:330-4. PubMed link
 Balon et al. review animal and human studies of lithium discontinuation, including the possible pathophysiological explanation for rebound phenomena. The authors conclude that the research is mixed, and that no research has specifically addressed the neurochemical basis of withdrawal from lithium.                                                    
2) Williams R, Cheng L, Mudge A, Harwood A. A common mechanism of action for three mood-stabilizing drugs. Nature 2002;417(6886):292-295. PubMed link
 In this article, the authors propose that a common mechanism of action in which lithium, carbamazepine, and valproic acid “inhibit the collapse of sensory neuron growth cones and increase growth cone area.”
3) Harwood A, Agam G. Search for a common mechanism of mood stabilizers. Biochem Pharmacol 2003;66(2):179-189. PubMed link 
Authors review the search for a common mechanism of action among mood stabilizers, as a means of understanding their therapeutic effects and justification for being a unified class of drugs. While reviewing some possibilities, the authors conclude that no common mechanism has been established, nor theory of common action.
4) Post R. Kindling and sensitization as models for affective episode recurrence, cyclicity, and tolerance phenomena. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2007;31(6):858-873. PubMed link
In this article, Post outlines his kindling hypothesis of treatment of bipolar disorder, including the hypothesis and supporting research that discontinuation of lithium treatment can lead to a refractory period. In the refractory period, Post proposes that outcomes may be worse than before the introduction of treatment and that reintroduction may not achieve the same effects, although this phenomenon only occurs in 10-15% of patients.
5) Moncrieff J. The Myth of the Chemical Cure: A Critique of Psychiatric Drug Treatment. 2009; New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Publisher link
Moncrieff’s critical text on psychiatric drugs includes two chapters on drugs used to treat bipolar disorder. Moncrieff discusses the lack of consensus on a biological theory or animal model of bipolar disorder that would explain or justify the effects of mood stabilizers. She proposes that theoretically the withdrawal effects of lithium could be accounted for by a rebound from its toxic effects, resulting in excitability of the nervous system. She also reviews research on effectiveness of lithium and other mood stabilizers.
6) Schloesser RJ, Martinowich K, Maji HK. Mood stabilizing drugs: mechanisms of action. Trends Neurosci 2012;35:36-46. PubMed link
The authors discuss recent research on the effect of mood stabilizing drugs and that, “at least some of the therapeutic effects of mood-stabilizing drugs appear to be induced by activating neurotrophic and neuroprotective pathways, and related intracellular signaling pathways.” The reason for their therapeutic effects, or how to identify more effective drugs, are unknown.
7) Malhi GS, Tanious M, Das P, Coulston CM, Berk M. Potential mechanisms of action of lithium in bipolar disorder. CNS Drugs 2013;27:135-153. PubMed link
The authors review research on the various theories of mechanisms of action of lithium from microscopic to macroscopic levels, including that lithium affects enzymes involved in second messenger systems that then modulate neurotransmission, resulting in generally inhibitory effects, and that lithium may also be neuroprotective. However, it is unknown why or how lithium’s varied neurochemical effects are implicated in the treatment of mania and depression.
Animal Studies
Animal studies have attempted to explain treatment efficacy of mood stabilizers, as well as account for any “rebound” effects of withdrawal from these drugs. In many cases, withdrawal rat studies suggest that some effects of these medications are reversible whereas others persist after discontinuation.
8) Ahluwalia P, Singhal R. Effect of low-dose lithium administration and subsequent withdrawal on biogenic amines in rat brain. Br J Pharmacol 1980;71(2):601-607. PubMed link
The authors found that lithium administration and withdrawal affected levels of tyrosine, tryptophan, noradrenaline, dopamine, 3-Methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic, and 5-Hydroxytryptamine. Effects varied across different brain regions. Two days of withdrawal of lithium did not result in a straightforward return to baseline levels. 
9) Ahluwalia P, Singhal R. Monoamine uptake into synaptosomes from various regions of rat brain following lithium administration and withdrawal. Neuropharmacology 1981;20(5):483-487. PubMed link
The authors examined noradrenaline, dopamine, and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) uptake across different brain regions during lithium administration and 2 days of withdrawal. Lithium administration resulted in variable effects on uptake across different regions; withdrawal resulted in return to control levels in all regions except the dopamine and 5-HT uptake in the striatum and 5-HT uptake in the midbrain. The authors propose that “rebound” mania following lithium withdrawal may be a result of this persistent effect on monoamine uptake.
10) Ahluwalia P, Singhal R. Effect of lithium treatment and withdrawal on uptake of noradrenaline into rat brain synaptosomes: a kinetic study. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 1982;6(4-6):339-342. PubMed link
The authors report on a rebound phenomenon related to noradrenaline uptake following lithium withdrawal. In control animals, two different uptake mechanisms for noradrenaline were found, one low-capacity mechanism and one high-capacity mechanism. Following withdrawal of lithium, uptake returned to control levels in the low-capacity mechanism but further increased uptake in the high-capacity mechanism. The authors posit that the noradrenaline uptake increase seen in the high-capacity mechanism may help explain “rebound” mania seen after lithium withdrawal.
11) Christensen S, Hansen B, Faarup P. Functional and structural changes in the rat kidney by long-term lithium treatment. Ren Physiol 1982;5(2):95-104. PubMed link
The authors observed renal concentrating ability is impaired during long-term (21 week) administration of lithium in rats and that these effects were completely reversed upon drug withdrawal, despite reports that impairment can persist in humans. 
12) Ahluwalia P, Singhal R. Comparison of the changes in central catecholamine systems following short- and long-term lithium treatment and the consequences of lithium withdrawal. Neuropsychobiology 1984;12(4):217-223. PubMed link
This study provides support that withdrawal of lithium, in this case following either short-term or long-term treatment, does not lead to a return to normal states in central catecholamine systems in the rat brain.
13) Lerer B, Globus M, Brik E, Hamburger R, Belmaker R. Effect of treatment and withdrawal from chronic lithium in rats on stimulant-induced responses. Neuropsychobiology 1984;11(1):28-32. PubMed link
The authors found inhibition of hyperactivity induced by a lower dose of stimulants but not by a higher dose during administration of lithium. After withdrawal from lithium, rats showed a subsensitivity to this hyperactivity response; the authors theorize a relationship between this subsensitivity and reports of psychotic symptoms in humans following withdrawal.
14) Ahluwalia P, Singhal R. Kinetics of the uptake of monoamines into synaptosomes from rat brain. Consequences of lithium treatment and withdrawal. Neuropharmacology 1985;24(8):713-720. PubMed link
Results of this study suggest increased uptake of dopamine during lithium treatment across observed brain regions, whereas withdrawal resulted in decreased uptake below control levels.
15) Berggren U. The effect of chronic lithium administration and withdrawal on locomotor activity and apomorphine-induced locomotor stimulation in rats. J Neur Transm 1988;71(1):65-72. PubMed link
Berggren observed no change in in apomorphine-induced locomotor stimulation in rats following administration of lithium, but reported an increase in stimulation following withdrawal. This effect was short-term, with no difference found 4 days after withdrawal, suggesting a temporary increased sensitivity of dopamine receptors.
16) Barros H, Tannhauser S, Tannhauser M, Tannhauser M. Effect of sodium valproate on the open-field behavior of rats. Braz J Med Biol Res 1992;25(3):281-287. PubMed link
Rats were observed for 14 days following interruption of sodium valproate treatment, with no changes in behavior observed.
17) Carli M, Morissette M, Hébert C, Di Paolo T, Reader T. Effects of a chronic lithium treatment on central dopamine neurotransporters. Biochem Pharmacol 1997;54(3):391-397. PubMed link
The authors found some effects of lithium on dopamine systems, supporting the role of dopamine in affective disorders, but did not find any prolonged effects following 48 hours of lithium withdrawal.
18) Miki M, Hamamura T, Kuroda S, et al. Effects of subchronic lithium chloride treatment on G-protein subunits (Golf, Ggamma7) and adenylyl cyclase expressed specifically in the rat striatum. Eur J Pharmacol 2001;428(3):303-309. PubMed link 
The authors found an increase in G-protein after 2 weeks of lithium administration, and that levels did not return to baseline levels until 1 week after withdrawal. The authors discuss the possible relationship between these results and “rebound” mania phenomena after lithium withdrawal. 
19) Sattin A, Senanayake S, Pekary A. Lithium modulates expression of TRH receptors and TRH-related peptides in rat brain. Neuroscience 2002;115(1):263-273. PubMed Link
The authors report the observed effects of acute and chronic lithium administration and its withdrawal on Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) receptors and TRH-related peptides. Lithium administration resulted in varied effects (both increases and decreases) in different brain regions, and opposite effects in the 48-hours of observed withdrawal. Observed withdrawal effects were not equivalent to a return to baseline levels.
20) Pekary A, Sattin A, Meyerhoff J, Chilingar M. Valproate modulates TRH receptor, TRH and TRH-like peptide levels in rat brain. Peptides 2004;25(4):647-658. PubMed link
The authors report on the effects of valproate on TRH levels, finding that TRH levels increased with valproate administration and persisted after two days of withdrawal from treatment. The authors discuss these results in light of theories of this drug’s mood regulating potential.
21) Ferrie L, Young A, McQuade R. Effect of chronic lithium and withdrawal from chronic lithium on presynaptic dopamine function in the rat. J Psychopharmacol 2005;19(3):229-234. PubMed link
The authors found in this study that lithium administration decreased presynaptic dopamine release in rats and that dopamine release levels returned to normal once lithium was withdrawn. The authors conclude that lithium’s effects on dopamine release are not related to rebound mania phenomena.
22) Ferrie L, Young A, McQuade R. Effect of lithium and lithium withdrawal on potassium-evoked dopamine release and tyrosine hydroxylase expression in the rat. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 2006;9(6):729-735. PubMed link
The authors found that lithium treatment attenuated release of dopamine in treated rats and that this effect persisted 3 days after withdrawal of lithium. Thus, these results do not suggest a “rebound” effect of withdrawal on dopamine release, as has been theorized due to recurrent mania in humans. 
Withdrawal Symptoms
The main concern in withdrawal of mood stabilizing drugs is potential “relapse,” principally in the form of manic episodes.  Research related to relapse is discussed in the “Discontinuation Success Rate” section below, although some researchers have suggested that the experience of mania after withdrawal from mood stabilizers is a withdrawal reaction rather than relapse. Reports of other withdrawal symptoms are mixed, from no effects to more typical drug- withdrawal symptoms such as anxiety and irritability to kidney-related effects related to lithiumwithdrawal. Some research suggests that mood stabilizers are protective against suicidality, such that withdrawal may increase this risk.
23) Rifkin A, Quitkin F, Howard A, Klein D. A study of abrupt lithium withdrawal. Psychopharmacologia 1975;44(2):157-158. PubMed link
Twelve participants were prescribed lithium for 6 weeks and then abruptly withdrawn to placebo. The authors compared reported side effects in the last week of lithium and the first week on placebo. Reported symptoms were similar, leading the authors to conclude that lithium does not produce withdrawal effects.
24) Rabin E, Garston R, Weir R, Posen G. Persistent nephrogenic diabetes insipidus associated with long-term lithium carbonate treatment. Can Med Assoc J 1979;121(2):194-198. PubMed link
This case report describes persistent urine concentration ability of the kidneys of a woman for 4 years following discontinuation of lithium. The authors conclude that the persistent renal effects were likely related to lithium administration.
25) Christodoulou G N, Lykouras E P. Abrupt lithium discontinuation in manic-depressive patients. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1982:65:310-314. PubMed link
Eighteen patients were discontinued from lithium and followed for 15 days. The authors found reduced side effects and no withdrawal symptoms in their sample, although 3 individuals relapsed within the first four days of discontinuation.
26) King JR, Hullin RP. Withdrawal symptoms from lithium: four case reports and a questionnaire study. Br J Psychiatry 1983;143:30-5. PubMed link
This questionnaire study surveyed lithium users about withdrawal symptoms. Users reported short-term anxiety as a symptom, as well as longer-term effects such as increased emotional responsiveness, improved concentration, and decreased thirst.
27) Bendz H. Kidney function in a selected lithium population. A prospective, controlled, lithium-withdrawal study. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1985;72(5):451-463. PubMed link
By studying withdrawal effect, the author found that long-term use of lithium effects kidney functioning in both reversible and irreversible ways.
28) Goodnick P. Clinical and laboratory effects of discontinuation of lithium prophylaxis. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1985;71(6):608-614. PubMed link
Twelve patients who had been taking lithium for at least a year and were in remission discontinued lithium for three weeks and completed weekly rating scales regarding mood symptoms and side effects. No significant changes in mood symptoms or relapses were found. Side effects decreased after two weeks of discontinuation, particularly renal functioning improvement.
29) Balon R, Yeragani VK, Pohl RB, Gershon S. Lithium discontinuation: withdrawal or relapse? Compr Psychiatry 1988;29:330-4. PubMed link 
The authors conclude that little evidence documents “true” withdrawal (i.e., symptoms not attributable to relapse) but that its existence is probable, with symptoms of anxiety, irritability, and disturbed sleep.
30) Duncan J, Shorvon S, Trimble M. Withdrawal symptoms from phenytoin, carbamazepine and sodium valproate. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1988;51(7):924-928. PubMed link
This withdrawal study was conducted in order to determine withdrawal symptoms from these medications in the treatment of seizures and seizure disorders. Faster and slower rates of withdrawal were compared to a control group that maintained the medications. No significant differences in symptoms were found between groups.
31) Souza F, Mander A, Foggo M, Dick H, Shearing C, Goodwin G. The effects of lithium discontinuation and the non-effect of oral inositol upon thyroid hormones and cortisol in patients with bipolar affective disorder. J Affect Disord July 1991;22(3):165-170. PubMed link
The authors monitored hormone levels in 14 individuals who were withdrawn from lithium treatment. Significant changes in hormones were found among the participants, which the authors related to the research supporting decreased thyroid functioning during lithium treatment. Seven of the participants relapsed following withdrawal, and relapse was not associated with changes in hormones. 
32) Suppes, T, Baldessarini, RJ, Fredda, GL, Tohen, M. Risk of recurrence following discontinuation of lithium treatment in bipolar disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1991;48:1082–1088. PubMed link
This article reviews research on the risks to users following discontinuation from lithium, first and foremost the risk of relapse. The possibility of a risk of users becoming refractory to lithium after discontinuing and then reintroducing it, as well as increased suicide risk, are discussed in terms of a being areas of concern that require further research.
33) Post R, Leverich G, Altshuler L, Mikalauskas K. Lithium-discontinuation-induced refractoriness: preliminary observations. Am J Psychiatry 1992;149(12):1727-1729. PubMed link
The authors present a case study of four individuals diagnosed with bipolar disorder who experienced relapses following discontinuation of long-term treatment, followed by ineffectiveness of the treatment once reinstated. The authors suggest that this refractoriness may be a withdrawal effect.
34) Schou M. Is there a lithium withdrawal syndrome? An examination of the evidence. Br J Psychiatry 1993;163:514-518. PubMed link
After reviewing research evidence, the author concludes that little quality evidence of a withdrawal syndrome for lithium had been produced to date. In the review, Schou explores other interpretations of reported symptoms and methodological weaknesses of studies that have led to inconclusive results.
35) Ketter T, Malow B, Flamini R, White S, Post R, Theodore W. Anticonvulsant withdrawal-emergent psychopathology. Neurology 1994;44(1):55-61. PubMed link
The authors studied psychopathology symptoms that occurred during withdrawal of anticonvulsant (carbamazepine, valproic acid, or phenytoin) drugs used to treat seizures among 32 participants. Tapering ranged between 5 and 45 days. The authors found increases in reported symptoms in the final week of tapering, followed by dramatic increases once the drugs were discontinued. Moderate to severe pathology was documented in 12 participants, including 2 with psychotic symptoms. The authors conclude that this symptomatology may have been due in part to withdrawal effects.
36) Swartz C, Dolinar L. Encephalopathy associated with rapid decrease of high levels of lithium. Ann Clin Psychiatry 1995;7(4):207-209. PubMed link 
This case study documents neurotoxicity following rapid withdrawal from high doses of lithium, which the authors distinguish from toxicity resulting from high doses of lithium alone.
37) Bendz H, Sjödin I, Aurell M. Renal function on and off lithium in patients treated with lithium for 15 years or more. A controlled, prospective lithium-withdrawal study. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1996;11(3):457-460. PubMed link 
Results supported decreased kidney functioning in long-term lithium patients that persisted for 9 weeks after withdrawal. 
38) Darbar D, Connachie A, Jones A, Newton R. Acute psychosis associated with abrupt withdrawal of carbamazepine following intoxication. Br J Clin Pract 1996;50(6):350-351. PubMed link
This case study discusses the incidence of psychotic symptoms, including agitation and paranoid delusions, after withdrawal from a toxic dose of carbamazepine in a patient with no history of psychosis.
39) Tondo L, Baldessarini R, Floris G, Rudas N. Effectiveness of restarting lithium treatment after its discontinuation in bipolar I and bipolar II disorders. Am J Psychiatry 1997;154(4):548-550. PubMed link
The authors studied the effects of withdrawing and restarting lithium treatment, finding no evidence to support any “refractoriness” after interruption of treatment.
40) Tondo L, Jamison K, Baldessarini R. Effect of lithium maintenance on suicidal behavior in major mood disorders. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1997;836:339-351. PubMed link
In this review, the authors discuss the evidence of an increased risk of suicidality following discontinuation of lithium.
41) Tondo, L, Baldessarini RJ, Hennen J, et al.: Lithium treatment and risk of suicidal behavior in bipolar disorder patients. J Clin Psychiatry 1998, 59:405–414. PubMed link
This article found an increased risk of suicidality in the year following discontinuation of lithium when compared to those who maintained treatment.
42) Baldessarini R, Tondo L, Hennen J. Effects of lithium treatment and its discontinuation on suicidal behavior in bipolar manic-depressive disorders. J Clin Psychiatry 1999;60 Suppl 2:77-84. PubMed link 
From their review, the authors conclude that lithium discontinuation, and particularly abrupt discontinuation, is associated with increased risk of suicidal ideation and death by suicide.
43) Bowden C. The ability of lithium and other mood stabilizers to decrease suicide risk and prevent relapse. Curr Psychiatry Rep 2000;2(6):490-494. PubMed link
In this review article, the author discusses evidence of suicide risk reduction via use of lithium, divalproex, and carbamazepine. Evidence for lithium’s effects were mostly drawn from naturalistic studies and suggest that length of lithium use may be a factor in the lower rates of suicidality found. The author also discusses two trials that compared lithium to other mood stabilizers, and that it remains unclear the extent to which any medication reduces suicide risk versus other psychosocial interventions delivered in the course of medication management.
44) Faedda G, Tondo L, Baldessarini R. Lithium discontinuation: uncovering latent bipolar disorder? Am J Psychiatry 2001;158(8):1337-1339. PubMed link
In this letter to the editor, the authors comment on a recent study of discontinuation of adjunctive lithium treatment among individuals with unipolar depression. The authors point out that the incidence of manic episodes after lithium withdrawal, and thus rediagnosis to bipolar disorder, is greater than would be expected than would be expected statistically. These results suggest that manic episodes experienced after discontinuation are withdrawal-related rather than relapse.
45) Gelisse P, Kissani N, Crespel A, Jafari H, Baldy-Moulinier M. Is there a lamotrigine withdrawal syndrome? Acta Neurol Scand 2002;105(3):232-234. PubMed link
This case reports describes the development of psychomotor inhibition in a patient withdrawn from lamotrigine abruptly. The authors discuss the possibility of a withdrawal syndrome, with typically minor and less typically severe reactions.
46) Carmaciu C, Anderson C, Lawton C. Thyrotoxicosis after complete or partial lithium withdrawal in two patients with bipolar affective disorder. Bipolar Disord 2003;5(5):381-384. PubMed link
In this case study the authors describe the emergence of thyrotoxicosis in two patients following withdrawal from lithium, one having been withdrawn fully and the other partially. The authors discuss possible explanations for the relationship between withdrawal and this condition and the need for further research. 
47) Yerevanian B, Koek R, Mintz J. Bipolar pharmacotherapy and suicidal behavior. Part I: Lithium, divalproex and carbamazepine. J Affect Disord 2007;103(1-3):5-11. PubMed link
The authors compared individuals maintained on lithium, divalproex, and carbamazepine to those withdrawn in rates of suicidality. For all three medications, rates of suicidality were higher after withdrawal of the medication than with treatment.
48) Frey L, Strom L, Shrestha A, Spitz M. End-of-dose emergent psychopathology in ambulatory patients with epilepsy on stable-dose lamotrigine monotherapy: a case series of six patients. Epilepsy Behav 2009;15(4):521-523. PubMed link
The authors identified six individuals via retrospective chart review who experienced distressing psychiatric symptoms during late-dose withdrawal from lamotrigine. The principal symptoms reported were anxiety and irritability. 
49) Grünfeld J, Rossier B. Lithium nephrotoxicity revisited. Nat Rev Nephrol 2009;5(5):270-276. PubMed link
This article reviews literature on the effects of lithium use on renal functioning. The authors discuss the costs and benefits of discontinuing lithium treatment, especially given that discontinuation can sometimes but not always improve renal functioning. 
50) Howland R. Potential adverse effects of discontinuing psychotropic drugs. Part 3: Antipsychotic, dopaminergic, and mood-stabilizing drugs. J Psychosoc Nurs 2010;48(8):11-14. PubMed link
Howland reviews research on potential withdrawal symptoms of mood instability and risk of mood episode relapse, with the highest risk associated with more sudden discontinuation. The anticonvulsants have different side effects, but generally discontinuation is also associated with mood instability, as well as anxiety, agitation, and sleep disturbance. These drugs, and thus their discontinuation, also affect metabolism of other medications. 
51) Werneke U, Ott M, Renberg E, Taylor D, Stegmayr B. A decision analysis of long-term lithium treatment and the risk of renal failure. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2012;126(3):186-197. PubMed link
The authors discuss relative risks and benefits of lithium continuation and discontinuation in response to kidney disease. The authors conclude that lithium continuation is still recommended in most cases given risk of relapse and suicide upon discontinuation.
52) Chen M, Zhang W, Guo Z, Zhang W, Chai Y, Li Y. Withdrawal reaction of carbamazepine after neurovascular decompression for trigeminal neuralgia: a preliminary study. J Neurol Sci 2014;338(1-2):43-45. PubMed link
Ninety patients were followed after carbamazepine withdrawal; 26 patients reported withdrawal symptoms within 4 days of withdrawal. Symptoms included insomnia, dysphoria, hallucination, hand fremitus, and headaches, and symptoms alleviated within 1 week.
Discontinuation Success Rates
The incidence of withdrawal-related relapses is fairly well-established for lithium, although less is known about discontinuation of other drugs in this class. Differentiation of symptoms that result from drug withdrawal from a recurrence of illness is not systematic in the research literature, making it difficult to assess withdrawal (see Peter Breggin’s book Psychiatric Drug Withdrawal: A Guide for Prescribers, Therapists, Patients, and Their Families and Guy Chouinard’s article “Issues in the clinical use of benzodiazepines: potency, withdrawal and rebound” in the Journal of Clinical Psychiatry for further discussion of this issue). Dropouts from clinical studies also complicate this research. Shorter term studies favor drug-treated groups over those taking placebo in terms of risk of relapse, but longer term studies suggest that the risk of relapse is comparable for those who maintain drug treatment and those who withdraw. In addition, the time spent withdrawing the drug treatment may affect the risk of relapse, with abrupt withdrawal increasing that risk. (See “tapering speed” section below.”)
53) Baastrup P, Poulsen J, Schou M, Thomsen K, Amdisen A. Prophylactic lithium: double blind discontinuation in manic-depressive and recurrent-depressive disorders. Lancet 1970;2(7668):326-330. PubMed link
The authors found that 21 of 39 patients discontinued from lithium relapsed during the trial, whereas none of the patients who continued taking lithium relapsed. The authors reported that the relapses were distributed across the period of the trial (5 months) and did not indicate “rebound” effects.
54) Small JC, Small IF, Moore DF. Experimental withdrawal of lithium in recovered manic-depressive patients. Am J Psychiatry 1971:127:1555-1558. PubMed link
In this case study five patients were withdrawn from lithium; the authors found that 4 of the 5 patients relapsed within seven weeks of withdrawing from the drug.
55) Lapierre Y D, Gagnon A, Kokkinidis L. Rapid recurrence of mania following lithium withdrawal. Biol Psychiatry 1980:15:859-864. PubMed link
In this study of 20 patients who were withdrawn from lithium after a long period of mood stability, 4 were found to relapse within one week. The authors suggest that the manic relapses were rebound phenomena, reflecting a reaction to lithium withdrawal.
56) Klein H, Broucek B, Greil W. Lithium withdrawal triggers psychotic states. Br J Psychiatry 1981;139:255-256. PubMed link
In this study of lithium withdrawal of 21 patients, 11 patients relapsed within two weeks of discontinuation. Among the other 10 participants, discontinuation symptoms of anxiety, irritability, disturbed sleep, and some mood lability were reported.
57) Margo A, McMahon P. Lithium withdrawal triggers psychosis. Br J Psychiatry 1982:141:407-410. PubMed link
The authors of this case study of lithium withdrawal concluded that all 4 of 4 patients relapsed with manic episodes within 2 weeks of discontinuation.
58) Christodoulou G N, Lykouras E P. Abrupt lithium discontinuation in manic-depressive patients. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1982:65:310-314. PubMed link
Eighteen patients were discontinued from lithium and followed for 15 days. The authors found reduced side effects and no withdrawal symptoms in their sample, although 3 individuals relapsed within the first four days of discontinuation.
59) Sashidharan S, McGuire R. Recurrence of affective illness after withdrawal of long-term lithium treatment. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1983;68(2):126-133. PubMed link
The authors followed 22 patients who had discontinued lithium in this observational study and found that 16 experienced mood episode recurrence within 67 months of discontinuation. The observed that manic episodes seemed to occur closer to discontinuation than depressive episodes, and 4 of the 16 experienced a mood episode within 3 months of discontinuation.
60) Mander A. Is there a lithium withdrawal syndrome? Br J Psychiatry 1986;149:498-501. PubMed link
The author compared a control group of participants who had never taken lithium, or had taken it for less than three months, to those who were treated with lithium. All participants had been discharged from care and had been stable for three months afterward. Mander found that the risk of recurrence was higher for those who had taken lithium and discontinued use than in those who had never taken lithium, concluding that these results support the existence of a lithium withdrawal syndrome. Most relapses within the first three months of discontinuation were manic rather than depressive episodes.
61) Heh C, Sramek J, Herrera J, Costa J. Exacerbation of psychosis after discontinuation of carbamazepine treatment. Am J Psychiatry 1988;145(7):878-879. PubMed link
Twenty individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia were discontinued abruptly, with an exacerbation of psychotic symptoms for two individuals. The authors review several hypotheses that could account for the increase in symptoms following discontinuation.
62) Suppes T, Baldessarini R, Faedda G, Tohen M. Risk of recurrence following discontinuation of lithium treatment in bipolar disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1991;48(12):1082-1088. PubMed link
The authors analyzed risk of recurrence from 14 studies in which participants were discontinued from lithium. They found that 50% of mood episodes that occurred following discontinuation occurred within the first 10 weeks after treatment was stopped.
63) Suppes T, Baldessarini R, Faedda G, Tondo L, Tohen M. Discontinuation of maintenance treatment in bipolar disorder: risks and implications. Harv Rev Psychiatry 1993;1(3):131-144. PubMed link
This review article discusses recurrence risk following discontinuation, as well as other potential risks such as treatment refractoriness and suicidality. 
64) Scull D, Trimble MR. Mania precipitated by carbamazepine withdrawal. Br J Psychiatry 1995; 167:698. PubMed link
This case study of a woman being treated for epilepsy with carbamazepine describes the appearance of symptoms of mania following withdrawal, suggesting a possible relationship between withdrawal and “rebound” mania.
65) Johnson R, McFarland B. Lithium use and discontinuation in a health maintenance organization. Am J Psychiatry 1996;153(8):993-1000. PubMed link
The authors compared rate of mental health service use among patients who maintained lithium treatment and those who discontinued it, finding that those who discontinued had higher rates of psychiatric hospitalization and emergency services.
66) Coryell W, Winokur G, Solomon D, Shea T, Leon A, Keller M. Lithium and recurrence in a long-term follow-up of bipolar affective disorder. Psychol Med 1997;27(2):281-289. PubMed link
In this study, patients with bipolar disorder were followed for 5 years, with one group of patients continuing lithium prophylaxis and another group discontinuing and patients taking lithium were compared to those who were not. The authors suggest that lithium prophylaxis may be helpful in preventing relapse but not recurrence, as there was no significant difference between the two groups in rates of recurrence in the long term.
67) Kennebäck G, Ericson M, Tomson T, Bergfeldt L. Changes in arrhythmia profile and heart rate variability during abrupt withdrawal of antiepileptic drugs. Implications for sudden death. Seizure 1997;6(5):369-375. PubMed link
The authors studied cardiac symptoms in ten patients following abrupt withdrawal from carbamazepine and phenytoin in the last day of treatment and four days following withdrawal. The authors conclude that the cardiac symptoms associated with abrupt withdrawal may contribute to sudden unexpected deaths among patients with epilepsy.
68) Baldessarini R, Tondo L. Recurrence risk in bipolar manic-depressive disorders after discontinuing lithium maintenance treatment: an overview. Clin Drug Investig 1998;15(4):337-351. PubMed link
In this review, the authors conclude that discontinuation carries a risk of recurrence of mood symptoms, particularly within the first year of discontinuation, but that gradual discontinuation attenuates this risk. The authors also conclude that individuals risk only minor loss of effectiveness of lithium if it is reintroduced after discontinuation.
69) Baldessarini R, Tondo L, Viguera A. Discontinuing lithium maintenance treatment in bipolar disorders: risks and implications. Bipolar Disord 1999;1(1):17-24. PubMed link
This review of the research evidence highlights the increased risk of recurrence and suicidality after lithium discontinuation, particularly abrupt discontinuation, and the authors’ hypothesis that this phenomenon reflects a reaction the body’s adaptations to long-term treatment. The authors caution interpretation of discontinuation studies and any conclusion that the heightened recurrence risk resulting from discontinuation in placebo arms is comparable to non-treatment.
70) Davis J, Janicak P, Hogan D. Mood stabilizers in the prevention of recurrent affective disorders: a meta-analysis. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1999;100(6):406-417. PubMed link
In this meta-analysis, Davis et al. conclude that maintenance lithium reduces relapses when compared to no treatment, and they present their argument against evidence of lithium withdrawal-related relapse.
71) Bowden C. The ability of lithium and other mood stabilizers to decrease suicide risk and prevent relapse. Curr Psychiatry Rep 2000;2(6):490-494. PubMed link
The author discusses evidence of reduced risk of relapse when patients are maintained with lithium or divalproex when compared to placebo, while also discussed the limitations of the designs of earlier studies from the 1970s that overinflated the apparent risk of relapse upon discontinuation.
72) Calabrese J, Suppes T, Monaghan E, et al. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, prophylaxis study of lamotrigine in rapid-cycling bipolar disorder. Lamictal 614 Study Group. J Clin Psychiatry 2000;61(11):841-850. PubMed link
This withdrawal study found that 23 of 89 participants who withdrew to placebo had not relapsed after the 26-week study period. Forty-nine required some intervention, and the remaining participants withdrew before the end of the study. The authors did not find a significant difference in the time to additional intervention between those withdrawn to placebo and those maintained on lamotrigine.
73) Macritchie K, Hunt N. Does ‘rebound mania’ occur after stopping carbamazepine? A pilot study. J Psychopharmacol 2000;14(3):266-268. PubMed link
This pilot study followed 6 individuals who had withdrawn carbamazepine treatment and did not support a “rebound” effect as has been reported with lithium discontinuation.
74) Bowden C, Calabrese J, DeVeaugh-Geiss J, et al. A placebo-controlled 18-month trial of lamotrigine and lithium maintenance treatment in recently manic or hypomanic patients with bipolar I disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2003;60(4):392-400. PubMed link
This study compared patients who were all treated with lamotrigine before being maintained on lamotrigine, lithium, or placebo. Participants in the two maintenance treatment groups had significantly longer time to a subsequent mood episode than those who had discontinued.
75) Calabrese J, Bowden C, DeVeaugh-Geiss J, et al. A placebo-controlled 18-month trial of lamotrigine and lithium maintenance treatment in recently depressed patients with bipolar I disorder. J Clin Psychiatry 2003;64(9):1013-1024. PubMed link
Participants in this study were stabilized on lamotrigine in an open-label phase and then maintained on lamotrigine, lithium, or placebo. For those participants stabilized on lamotrigine and then withdrawn to placebo, the median time to treatment was significantly shorter than for those maintained on lithium or lamotrigine. Adverse events reported by placebo participants were headache, nausea, dizziness, tremor, rash, somnolence, diarrhea, insomnia, and infection or influenza. 
76) Jess G, Smith D, Mackenzie C, Crawford C. Carbamazepine and rebound mania. Am J Psychiatry 2004;161(11):2132-2133. PubMed link
The authors describe a case study of patient with no history of mood disorders who experienced manic symptoms after withdrawing from carbamazepine.
77) Biel M, Peselow E, Mulcare L, Case B, Fieve R. Continuation versus discontinuation of lithium in recurrent bipolar illness: a naturalistic study. Bipolar Disord 2007;9(5):435-442. PubMed link
This 2-year study followed 159 individuals who maintained treatment and 54 patients who discontinued lithium. Illness recurrence occurred in both groups, with higher odds of recurrence among the discontinued group.
78) Viguera A, Whitfield T, Cohen L, et al. Risk of recurrence in women with bipolar disorder during pregnancy: prospective study of mood stabilizer discontinuation.  Am J Psychiatry 2007;164(12):1817-1824. PubMed link
Pregnant female participants who had discontinued mood stabilizer treatment were compared to women who maintained drug treatment up to a year postpartum. Most participants were also taking adjunctive antidepressants. The authors reported higher risk of recurrence of bipolar symptoms among those who had discontinued medication, as well as longer duration of episodes. Postpartum findings were not reported. 
79) Franks M, Macritchie K, Mahmood T, Young A. Bouncing back: is the bipolar rebound phenomenon peculiar to lithium? A retrospective naturalistic study. J Psychopharmacol 2008;22(4):452-456. PubMed link
This study found that the “rebound” of bipolar disorder symptoms after discontinuation of medication occurred in the majority (74%) of cases reviewed and included those discontinuing all medications in this class. Rates of relapse were highest among those who had withdrawn from lithium and anticonvulsants versus those discontinuing antidepressants or antipsychotics. 
80) Moncrieff J. The myth of the chemical cure: a critique of psychiatric drug treatment. 2009; New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Publisher link
Moncrieff critically reviews clinical trials on prophylactic treatment with lithium and other mood stabilizing drugs, noting the many methodological issues in this research that make it difficult to determine if long-term treatment does in fact reduce the risk of mania and/or depression in comparison to no treatment. 
81) Sharma P, Kongasseri S, Praharaj S. Outcome of mood stabilizer discontinuation in bipolar disorder after 5 years of euthymia. J Clin Psychopharmacol 2014;34(4):504-507. PubMed link
This study followed 23 individuals withdrawing from lithium, valproate, or carbamazepine after at least 5 years of prophylactic treatment. Discontinuation was planned over 3 to 12 months. Twenty individuals had a recurrent manic episode following discontinuation; the time to the recurrent episode was a median of 10 months. 
82) Simhandl C, König B, Amann B. A prospective 4-year naturalistic follow-up of treatment and outcome of 300 bipolar I and II patients. J Clin Psychiatry 2014;75(3):254-262. PubMed link
The authors followed 300 patients over 4 years and found that stopping medication, either by the patient or the prescribing psychiatrist, decreased the time to relapse in comparison to those who maintained medication, including those who reduced their dosage. No differences in risk to relapse were found in relation to various demographic and clinical variables or bipolar I versus bipolar II diagnoses.
Tapering Speed
Most researchers agree that gradual tapering (2 weeks or longer) of lithium is safer than abrupt tapering (less than two weeks). This conclusion has been broadened to other mood stabilizers, although less research supports the superiority of a particular tapering speed among the anticonvulsant drugs.
83) Baldessarini R, Tondo L, Faedda G, Suppes T, Floris G, Rudas N. Effects of the rate of discontinuing lithium maintenance treatment in bipolar disorders. J Clin Psychiatry 1996;57(10):441-448. PubMed link
In this trial comparing of rapid (1-14 days) and gradual (15-30 days) discontinuation of lithium, the time to recurrence was 5 times faster with rapid discontinuation and specifically in the first year after discontinuation. Participants were 20 times more likely to be stable 3 years post-discontinuation following a gradual versus rapid taper. 
84) Darbar D, Connachie A, Jones A, Newton R. Acute psychosis associated with abrupt withdrawal of carbamazepine following intoxication. Br J Clin Pract 1996;50(6):350-351. PubMed link
Due to the incidence of psychotic symptoms following withdrawal from a toxic dose of carbamazepine, the authors suggested slow tapering of carbamazepine treatment given the risk of these symptoms after abrupt withdrawal.
85) Faedda G, Tondo L, Baldessarini R, Suppes T, Tohen M. Outcome after rapid vs gradual discontinuation of lithium treatment in bipolar disorders. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1993;50(6):448-455. PubMed link
In comparing gradual versus rapid discontinuation, the authors found that risk of recurrence was higher among those who had discontinued rapidly, and that this risk was highest within the first year of discontinuation. Beyond the first year, recurrence rates were not significantly different between groups. 
86) Baldessarini R, Tondo L, Floris G, Rudas N. Reduced morbidity after gradual discontinuation of lithium treatment for bipolar I and II disorders: a replication study. Am J Psychiatry 1997;154(4):551-553. PubMed link
This replication study (Faedda et al., 1993) included a 2-year follow-up of participants withdrawn rapidly (less than 2 weeks) or gradually (2+ weeks) from lithium. Slower discontinuation was associated with increased latency to first relapse; in addition, significantly more of the gradual taper group had remained stable at the 2-year follow-up than the rapid taper group. Thus, the authors conclude that gradual discontinuation could reduce recurrent episodes as well as delaying them.
87) Baldessarini R, Tondo L. Recurrence risk in bipolar manic-depressive disorders after discontinuing lithium maintenance treatment: an overview. Clin Drug Investig 1998;15(4):337-351. PubMed link
In this review of studies on lithium discontinuation, the authors provide support for their hypothesis that gradual discontinuation (over 2-4 weeks) reduces risk of relapse versus more abrupt discontinuation (2 weeks or less). The authors propose that the brain’s need to adapt gradually to the withdrawal of lithium accounts for this reduced risk.
88) Baldessarini R, Tondo L, Viguera A. Discontinuing lithium maintenance treatment in bipolar disorders: risks and implications. Bipolar Disord 1999;1(1):17-24. PubMed link
In this study, the authors reviewed research on clinical effects of lithium discontinuation, concluding that a) discontinuation increases suicide risk and risk of relapse and b) gradual tapering is associated with less risk.
89) Gelisse P, Kissani N, Crespel A, Jafari H, Baldy-Moulinier M. Is there a lamotrigine withdrawal syndrome? Acta Neurol Scand 2002;105(3):232-234. PubMed link
This case reports describes the development of psychomotor inhibition in a patient withdrawn from lamotrigine abruptly. The authors recommend withdrawal of lamotrigine over two weeks whenever possible to reduce risk.
90) Perlis R, Sachs G, Rosenbaum J, et al. Effect of abrupt change from standard to low serum levels of lithium: a reanalysis of double-blind lithium maintenance data. Am J Psychiatry 2002;159(7):1155-1159. PubMed link
Ninety-four patients were followed for up to 182 weeks after maintaining their dose of lithium or dose reduction. The authors conclude that the abrupt change in lithium serum levels is a stronger predictor of illness recurrence than dosage, and thus that abrupt dose changes should be avoided.
91) Cavanagh J, Smyth R, Goodwin G. Relapse into mania or depression following lithium discontinuation: a 7-year follow-up. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2004;109(2):91-95. PubMed link
Through long-term follow-up after discontinuation of lithium, the results of this study support that the risk of relapse is highest immediately after acute discontinuation. The authors did not find evidence of significantly increased risk of relapse after the increased period of risk immediately after discontinuation.

Thank You Ms Wheeler and Mia.