Sunday, May 31, 2009
Please see our post from April 11 2009 - Audit The Fed - where:
The makers of Abilify are trolling out $750,000 as Seed Money to Secure Public Monies, ..... to ADDICT NATIVE AMERICAN WOMEN To Bristol Myers Squibb's Psychotropic, Antipsychotic Drug, Abilify.
To understand What Abilify is, and by extension, the other Atypical Antipsychotics are, we highly recommend you to Cl Psych, who has been All Over Abilify.
If you live in the 4 corners area, or Know people who do, please Get involved in disseminating the Abilify FDA Reported Adverse Reactions, and Above Investigations of Abilify to those young women targeted, ...... Before the damage is done.
Abilify is an Atypical Antipsychotic.
Abilify is Not an Antidepressant, or any Other 'Mental Health' Double Speak, Misrepresented Euphemism.
See Robert Whitaker's Timeline of Anytipsychotics.
The FDA label, and a Hair Raising Direct To Consumer Television Ad on Abilify are Linked in our post:
Mental Health: Comes With FREE Sudden Death
Abilify, and all the Other Psychotropic pharmaceutical Toxins are
nothing to take lightly, and Certainly Nothing to Take on Faith.
Don't let DRUG PUSHERS go talking over your head, with their Incurably Opinionated, Disease Mongering, 'Mental Health' Ideations: which can cost your Wives, Sisters, Daughters, and Babies, their lives.
Get Fully Informed.
Saturday, May 30, 2009
Nada Stotland: President of the American Psychiatric Association
30 JAN. 1933: Adolf Hitler becomes Chancellor of the Reich. Ernst Rudin, professor of psychiatry, praises Hitler, saying it is thanks to him that "the dream we have cherished for more than thirty years of seeing racial hygiene converted into action has become reality."
1933: Dr. M. H. Goering, cousin of Marshal Hermann Goering, states that psychotherapists should make a serious scientific study of Hitler's Mein Kampf and recognize it as a basic work. This statement is published in Germany's Journal of Psychotherapy, of which Carl Jung is the editor.
1933: Madison Grant publishes Conquest of a Continent, a "racial history of the US." He sends copies to Mussolini, Nazi professor Dr. Eugen Fischer at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for the Study of Anthropology, Human Heredity and Eugenics in Berlin, Dr. Alfred Rosenberg (Hitler's chief scientific advisor) and Nazi race hygienist Dr. Fritz Lenz at the University of Munich.
1933: German doctors harass Jewish doctors by having them beaten, subjected to the sounds of gunshots, etc.
1933: Himmler creates Dachau in Germany on 20 March, 1933 as a place to send Communists, Social Democrats, etc.
1933: Dr. Hyde's first psychiatric patient, Theodor Eicke, becomes commandant of Dachau and then overall inspector of concentration camps. Hyde is consulting neuropsychiatric expert for the Gestapo and conducts "psychiatric/neurologic and heredity research" on concentration camp inmates.
1933: Dr. M. H. Goring (relative of Hermann Goring, Nazi leader) founds the New German Society for psychotherapy. Jung assumes the presidency. The society officially adopts the Nazi viewpoint on race, mental hygiene and psychiatry. Their journal states, "This Society has the task of unifying all German physicians in the spirit of the National Socialistic government...particularly those physicians who are willing to practice psychiatry according to the 'Weltanschauung' of the National Socialists." Jung writes in the journal, "... The Jew, a cultural nomad, has never and probably will never create his own cultural forms because all his instincts and gifts depend on a more or less civilized host nation. The Aryan unconscious has a higher potential than the Jewish..." On June 21, 1933, Jung states on the Radio Berlin that, "Only the self-development of the individual, which I consider to be the supreme goal of all psychological endeavor, can produce consciously responsible spokesmen and leaders of the collective movement. As Hitler said recently, the leader must be able to be alone and must have the courage to go his own way."
14 JULY 1933: Hitler puts into law the Nazi Act for Averting Descendants Afflicted with Hereditary Disease, which is based on H. H. Laughlin's US Model Eugenical Sterilization Law of 1922. Laughin receives an honorary degree from a German University (major Nazi research center on race purification) for his contribution to eugenics. Some figures of people who were slated to be surgically sterilized:
|Grave bodily malformation:||20,000|
1933: Fritz Lenz suggests sterilizing people with only slight symptoms of "mental disease," which at that time included about 20% of the German population (about 20,000,000 people). Martin Borman instructs in a directive that the person's moral and political behavior be taken into account when determining whether sterilization should take place. Estimate of people eventually sterilized under this law: approximately 375,000.
Ed: How curious, that Today's Psych Dicta has 1 in 5 Americans, (20%) suffering from a 'Diagnosable Mental Disorder'.
1933-45: According to the Central Association of Sterilized Persons in Germany in 1945, the total number of people sterilized under Hitler between 1933 - 1945 is 2,000,000. (The Journal of American Medical Association stated, regarding Nazi sterilization methods, that America had a "more gradual evolution of practice and principals" where sterilization was concerned.)
1934: Rudolph Hess says "National Socialism is nothing more than applied biology."
1934: Dr. Lenz states "As things are now, it is only a minority of our fellow citizens who are so endowed that their unrestricted procreation is good for the race."
1934-1938: Mental hospitals in Germany are encouraged to neglect patients. Funds are reduced. Courses showing repulsive behavior of some inmates are given first to government officials and then to SS, party leaders, police, prison officials and the press. A PR campaign is run heavily to prepare for the upcoming mass killings. About 20,000 civilian and military personnel see indoctrinatory films and "case demonstrations."
1934: Dr. Fischer gives the first course on eugenics for SS Doctors at Kaiser Wilhelm Institute.
1934: A film is released called Tomorrow's Children, dramatizing the plight of a woman about to be involuntarily sterilized before marriage to prevent bad characteristics from being passed on to her children.
1934: American eugenics doctors tour the German Hygiene Museum in Dresden.
1936-1965: Psychiatrist Franz J. Kallmann, born and educated in Germany, is a researcher at New York State Psychiatric Institute from '36 to '65, having worked for two years under the Nazis before coming to the U.S. in 1936. He is chief of psychiatric research at New York State Psychiatric beginning in 1952, when the CIA did LSD and Mescaline experiments there. Like Mengele, Kallmann is interested in twins and their genetic disposition. He focuses on this area concerning what he calls the "genetics of schizophrenia." Kallmann says in a lecture .".it is desirable to extend prevention of reproduction to relatives of schizophrenics who stand out because of minor anomalies and, above all, to define each of them as being undesirable from the eugenic point of view at the beginning of their reproductive years."
1935: Dr. Gerhardt Wagner, head physician of the Reich, discusses euthanasia with Hitler at the Nazi party congress in Nuremberg.
1935: Hitler first tells Gerhard Wagner (chief physician of the Reich) of his plans for the official euthanasia program. Wagner is regarded as the "godfather of the euthanasia program."
1935: Germans adopt a law requiring a medical examination before marriage and forbidding marriage between "Aryans" and Jews, Gypsies, Slavs, etc.
1935:The SS Race and Resettlement Bureau is given the authority to control the marriages of the entire German civilian population. Himmler predicts that in 120 years the entire German population will be pure-blooded Aryans.
1935: French-American Nobel Prize winner Dr. Alexis Carrel publishes "Man the Unknown" in which he advocates killing the "mentally ill and criminals" in "euthanasia" institutions. He writes, "Those who have murdered, robbed while armed...kidnapped children, despoiled the poor of their savings, misled the public in important matters, should be humanely and economically disposed of in small euthanasia institutions supplied with proper gases. A similar treatment could be advantageously applied to the insane, guilty of criminal acts."
1935: International Congress for Population Science in Berlin.
1936: Psychiatrist Dr. Ritter begins a "racial study" on Gypsies in Berlin.
1936: University of Heidelberg stages a 550 year jubilee and invites delegations from all over the world. Representatives from eight American universities attend. Harry H. Laughlin and Foster Kennedy are among the guests who are sympathetic toward Nazi sterilization methods. Germany is invited to send representatives to Harvard for its 200th anniversary celebration.
GERMAN RACIAL STERILIZATIONS BEGINS.
1936: In the first German sterilizations strictly on grounds of race, 500 children (the offspring of black soldiers) are sterilized.
1937: Harry H. Laughlin and Frederick Osborn, American scientists who played leading roles in the American eugenics movement and supported Nazi racial policies, establish the Pioneer Fund, the primary beneficiary of which is textile magnate Wickliffe Draper. The Fund's purposes include encouraging, among other things, increased reproduction on the part of "white persons who settled in the original thirteen colonies" and research on "race betterment." (Today, the Pioneer Fund continues to support research into eugenics, immigration, race and heredity.)
1937: All German "colored" children are ordered sterilized.
1937: Mengele publishes Racial-Morphological Examination of the Anterior Portion of the Lower Jaw in Four Racial Groups.
1937: Dr. Earnest Hooten, Harvard, is quoted in the New York times as saying "compulsory sterilization alone would serve in the case of the insane and mentally deficient, but it is very difficult to enforce such a measure in a democracy, unless it has been preceded by an educational campaign...a biological purge is the essential prerequisite for a social and spiritual salvation."
1937: Madison Grant's Conquest of a Continent ("Racial History of the US") is published in Berlin. It is greeted by Dr. Eugen Fisher with "No one has as much reason to note the work of this man with the keenest of attention as does a German of today--in a time when the racial idea has become one of the chief foundations of the National Socialist State's population policies."
1937: In America, the Eugenics Record Office and the Eugenics Research Association send a flier to 3,000 U.S. high schools, encouraging the screening of an English version of the Nazi propaganda film Erbkrank ("Hereditary Defective"). The film plays 28 times in 1937- 38.
c 1937: Leading government personnel and psychiatrists discuss elimination of the mentally ill (Germany). Leading psychiatrists Max de Crinis (professor and chairman of the department of psychiatry at Berlin University and later supervisor of killing center at Sonnenstein), Mau, Kihn, Pohlisch and Schneider get together with anthropologists and two directors of mental hospitals to draft a formal law concerning euthanasia.
1938: In the U.S., Harry H. Laughlin distributes numerous copies of the Nazi propaganda movie The Genetically Diseased to American schools, churches and clubs. In one scene preceding the image of a man facing the camera, the text reads, "55-year old Jew -cunning agitator."
1938: German born and educated US psychiatrist Franz Kallman calls for the "legal power" to sterilize "tainted children and siblings of schizophrenics" and to prevent marriages involving "schizoid eccentrics and borderline cases."
1939: Hitler asks Carl Brandt, his personal physician, to appoint an advisory board to devise a program for the killing of disabled children. The program is administered out of Hitler's private chancellory.
1939: An interview with psychiatrist Carl Jung is published in Hearst's International- Cosmopolitan. In it, he calls Mussolini a man of style and good taste who was "warm and human." About Hitler, he says, "There is no question but that Hitler belongs in the category of the truly mystic medicine man. As somebody commented about him at the last Nuremberg party congress, since the time of Mohammed nothing like it has been seen in this world. This markedly mystic characteristic of Hitler's is what makes him do things which seem to us illogical, inexplicable, curious and unreasonable...So you see, Hitler is a medicine man, a form of a spiritual vessel, a demi-deity or, even better, a myth."
JULY 1939: Most of the heads of psychiatry departments in German universities and almost all heads of German mental hospitals are formally briefed at the Chancellery in Berlin. They are instructed by the current head of the SS, Viktor Brack, that all insane people in Germany are to be killed by "euthanasia." Those in attendance are asked to participate and agree to do so, except for Professor Ewald of Gottingen. The general response of the psychiatrists present is recorded as: "Nobody mentioned any misgivings." Ten to fifteen doctors, with other SS personnel, organize the "National Group for Study of Sanatoria and Nursing Homes," the "Foundation of the Care of Institutions in the Public Interest," and the "Limited Company for the Transport of Invalids in the Public Interest" to begin execution of the killing program. Hitler's advisors calculate initially that out of 1,000 Germans, 10 are mentally ill. 5 will enter a psychiatric hospital and of these 5, one must die. The number calculated is between 65,000 and 70,000.
August 1939: Hitler's chancellory issues a statement saying children up to age 3 who are retarded or deformed must be registered by midwives or physicians. A questionnaire is to be filled out describing their disability. Three physicians decide the life or death of the child without examining them. At over 30 special clinics, selected children are killed by injection and starvation.
1 SEPT 1939: Hitler begins the second World War and backdates a letter concerning euthanasia to the same date. He writes, "Reichsleiter Bouhler and Dr. Brandt are entrusted with the responsibility of extending the rights of specially designated physicians, such that patients who are judged incurable after the most thorough review of their condition which is possible can be granted mercy killing." A panel of experts is appointed to review the death applications. The panel of at least 20 includes Drs. Heyde, Mauz, Nitsche (editor of the Journal of Mental Hygiene), Panse, Pohlisch, Reisch, Schneider (professor of psychiatry at University of Heidelberg and teacher of killing procedures to younger psychiatrists), Werner Villinger (professor of psychiatry at the University of Breslau) and Zucker —ALL PSYCHIATRISTS! They are paid a certain amount per application. There are 283,000 initial applications to be processed. At least 75,000 are marked for death.
Spring 1939: Hitler sets up the Reich Committee for Scientific Research of Heredity and Severe Constitutional Diseases for the purpose of selecting and killing children who are "mentally ill," "mentally deficient," and physically deformed. (Later, in 1948, the director of one institution was convicted of killing at least 120 children, some personally. He is sentenced to six years in prison, of which he serves two.) Fredric Wertham writes in his book, A Sign for Cain, "The children slated for death were sent to special 'children's divisions', first Goerden, then Eichberg, Idstein, Steinhof (near Vienna), and Eglfing. They were killed mostly by increasing doses of Luminal or other drugs either spoon-fed as medicine or mixed with their food. Their dying lasted for days, sometimes weeks. In actual practice, the indications for killing actually became wider and wider. Included were children who had 'badly modeled ears', who were bed wetters, or who were perfectly healthy but designated as 'difficult to educate'. The children coming under the Reich Commission were originally mostly infants. The age was then increased from three years to seventeen years..."
1939: Nazi psychiatrist Herman Pfanmuller (a Sturmbannfuehrer (major) in the SS) develops a method of starving infants to death slowly, rather than killing them with medication.
1939: Inmates of mental hospitals are shot to make room for German troops. This practice continues until these hospitals are effectively cleaned out by 1941. Psychiatric extermination facilities are set up in Pomerania. People are killed by gas, shooting, drugs, injections and starvation.
1939: Werner Catel, professor of psychiatry at Leipzig clinic, Hans Heinze, Ernst Wentzler, pediatric psychiatrist and others form a committee to decide which children should be put to death. They emphasize putting newborns to sleep "as soon as possible." This project is referred to as the "Special Psychiatric Youth Department." Included in the category of children to be killed are "juvenile delinquents" and "minor Jewish-Aryan half-breeds." After the war, Dr. Catel works as professor of pediatrics and head of the pediatric clinic at the University of Kiel until the 1960s.
1939: Through the Reich Chancellery and the Ministry of the Interior, Hitler officially extends killing to adult mental patients, choosing prominent psychiatrists to run the program called T4. "T4" is the code name for the project located at 4 Tiergartenstrasse in Berlin. In May, the Committee for the Scientific Treatment of Severe and Genetically Determined Illness is formed at 4 Tiergartenstrasse to study how to set up a euthanasia program. Dr. Herbert Linden, commissioner of all the psychiatric institutions in Germany, represents the Ministry of the Interior. This program eventually involves virtually the entire German psychiatric community. Four categories are specified for killings:
Six main killing centers are established, using converted nursing homes or hospitals. Hitler decides to use carbon monoxide on the advice of Dr. Werner Heyde, psychiatrist.
1939: Fourth International Congress for Racial Hygiene and Eugenics in Vienna.
NAZI GASSING OF MENTAL PATIENTS BEGINS
January 1940: Gassing of mental patients begins, using carbon monoxide gas in fake showers in a psychiatric hospital near Berlin. By Sept., 70,723 have died. A nurse involved in these proceedings testifies later that..."Herr Schwenninger was in charge of our convoys and kept lists of the names of patients who were to be transferred.... The patients we transferred were not the worst cases.... but very often in good physical condition....On the arrival of the patients at Grafeneck, they were taken to the huts there and briefly examined by Drs. Schumann and Baumhardt on the lines of the questionnaires. These two doctors gave the final decision whether a patient was to be gassed or not. In certain cases gassing was postponed. But the majority of the patients were killed within twenty-four hours of arriving at Grafeneck. I was there nearly a year and know of only a few cases in which patients were not gassed. As a rule they were given, before gassing, an injection of 2 c.c. of morphine and scopolamine. These injections were given by the doctor. The gassing was undertaken by certain picked men. Some of the corpses were dissected by Dr. Hennecke. Some idiotic children between 6 and 13 years old were also included in the program. After Grafeneck was closed I went to Hadamar and remained there until 1943....About seventy-five patients were killed daily. From Hadamar I was transferred to Irrsee, near Kaufbeuren, where I continued with this work...This program was carried on until the collapse of Germany." Horst Schumann headed the killing center at Grafeneck. He also assisted in extermination and experiments on Jewish prisoners at Auschwitz.
1940: Approximately 30,000 people are killed at Hartheim, Austria, one of the better-known killing centers. Simon Wiesenthal describes these kind of centers as "regular schools for mass murderers," producing "special cadres of technically skilled and emotionally hardened executioners." Of Hartheim, he writes, "Hartheim was organized like a medical school -- except that the 'students' were not taught to save human life but to destroy it as efficiently as possible. The deaths of the victims were clinically studied, precisely photographed, scientifically perfected. (At later trials in Germany it was proven that at the death camps of Belzec, Sobibor and Treblinka special photographers also made pictures of people being killed.) Various mixtures of gasses were tried out to find the most effective one. Doctors with stopwatches would observe the dying patients through the peephole in the cellar door at Castle Hartheim, and the length of the death struggle was clocked to one tenth of a second. Victims' brains were photographed to see exactly when death had occurred.
1940: Himmler receives a report that 6,400 Germans and Polish mental patients have been shot in one extermination program.
June 1940: The first gassings of Jews takes place. 200 men, women and children are transported from a mental institution to a killing center.
June 1940: Dr. Jaspersen of Bethel tries to get the heads of departments of psychiatry in German universities to make a protest against euthanasia. He receives no support.
May 1940: 1,558 mental patients are gassed in vans in a two week period in Soldau. SS officers wear white coats and carry stethoscopes (a common practice to medicalize the slaughter.)
1940s: Approximately 40,000 mental patients in France starve to death. The French psychiatrists readily follow the German example of covert euthanasia without being ordered to do so.
1940: Lothrop Stoddard, American eugenicist and author of The Rising Tide of Color against White World Supremacy, praised by President Herbert Hoover, meets with Himmler and other top Nazi officials. He states that the "Jews problem" is "already settled in principle and soon to be settled in fact by the physical elimination of the Jews themselves from the Third Reich." He says the Nazis are "weeding out the worst strains in the Germanic stock in a scientific and truly humanitarian way."
Early 1941: German psychiatrists train the Nazi SS on mass murder techniques they learned from experimenting on mental patients. The program is extended to Dachau and other camps under the code name of 14f13. Himmler uses experienced psychiatrists to go to camps and eliminate "asocial elements" -"excess prisoners." This was officially called Operation 14f13. Physicians push for widespread extermination of inmates, while some concentration camp personnel try to keep people alive to help the war effort. Doctors have the responsibility for killing at the camps, using methods they perfected on mental patients. "Medicalization" legitimizes widespread extermination. Reich Interior Minister orders that all Jews in German mental hospitals be killed. Roving bands of T4 commissions select those too ill to work & Jews and Gypsies in camps and send them to gas chambers at the psychiatric hospitals.
1941: Hadamar (psychiatric killing institution) has a special celebration to commemorate the cremation of "mental patient" number 10,000. The entire staff participates and each receives a bottle of beer.
1941: Viktor Brack, one of the heads of the euthanasia program, sends a report to Himmler stating how X-Rays can be used to sterilize people.
1941: I.G. Farben Industries (manufacturer of synthetic oil and rubber) chooses a site near Auschwitz because of the accessibility of slave labor. The overall operation is known as I. G. Auschwitz. Other large firms follow suit. I.G. Farben controls the firm that produces gas used by medical personnel in the camps. This begins the use of gas for mass exterminations outside of psychiatric hospitals. I.G. Farben pays the SS a labor fee of 3 Reichsmarks a day for each inmate; 1 ½ Reichsmarks a day for children. By September, 1942, I.G. Farben is running its own concentration camp. At Auschwitz, gassing is initially tested on 600 Russian prisoners of war and 200 hospital patients. Labor camps are converted to killing centers. Gas chambers are dismantled and reassembled at these camps. T-4 personnel accompany them, their salaries paid by Hitler's private chancellory.
1941: 90,000 German psychiatric patients are murdered; 71,000 in hospital gas chambers
1941: Blowing up mental patients with explosives is tried. This method is abandoned as needing too much cleaning up.
1941: Rosenberg, Reichsfurher for the occupied eastern territories, invites T4 personnel to assist in the liquidation of Jews confined to Polish ghettos. He requests assistance in constructing gas chambers.
1941: Hitler officially orders the general euthanasia program terminated due to an outcry from churches and public, but it in fact increases, with more and older children being killed. Over 5,000 children are killed. Various psychiatric methods are used to "treat" children including beatings and electric shock for bed-wetting. In August, the killing of mental patients by gas stops and death by starvation, drugs and failure to treat infectious disease begins (covert euthanasia). Approximately 300,000 mental patients are eventually killed by gassing, injection and starvation under this official program. Many thousands were murdered previously by covert means. Many institutions in Germany (e.g., Berlin, Silesia, Baden, Saxony and Austria) are closed entirely, as all the patients are liquidated. Approximately 100,000 German mental patients starve to death after the "end" of the euthanasia program. No resistance is voiced to the killing program from the psychiatric community. A killing center is dismantled and reassembled in the East. The murder continues but more quietly, up until and even briefly after the German surrender.
3 Sept 1941: Killing of Russian POWs by gas tried out for first time at Auschwitz.
10 Dec 1941: Himmler orders the Doctors involved in the euthanasia campaign to "comb out" prisoners in concentration camps for killing. Among those involved are psychiatrists Heyde, Nitsche and others.
1941: Dr. Ritter takes part in a conference discussing the killing of 30,000 Gypsies by sending them out to sea on ships and then bombing the ships.
1942: U.S. psychiatrist Foster Kennedy writes in the journal of the American Psychiatric Association that retarded and "utterly unfit" children should be killed to save money and emotional trauma for the parents.
1942: Psychiatrist Eberl is appointed as the head of Treblinka concentration camp.
1942: U.S. psychiatrists experiment with hypothermia or "refrigeration therapy" on mental patients, publishing their results in the Journal of Nervous and Mental Diseases. 16 people are placed in cabinets on a mattress covered with sheets for up to 120 hours (5 days), with their body temperature as low as 81.8 F. The authors describe the treatment results as, "...prolonged mental retardation and physical decay bordering on cachexia (general ill health, with emaciation) occurred in the survivors." Two deaths occurred from pneumonia. Another patient died 2 months after the treatment. These experiments pre-date the German ones cited in the Nuremberg trials.
Dec 1942: Psychiatrist Schneider runs a research ward where idiots and epileptics are marked for death and their brains studied.
1940s: Electroshock is given to mentally ill and non-mentally ill alike in German camps. Experiments are done on men, women and children, with some prisoner physicians assisting. Mengele performs experiments with twins, sometimes killing the children at the conclusion. Other medical experiments include: (from Nazi Doctors by Lifton) "artificially induced burns with phosphorous incendiary bombs; experiments on the effects of drinking sea water; experiments with various forms of poison, by ingestion as well as in bullets or arrows; widespread experiments on artificially induced typhus, as well as with epidemic hepatitis and with malaria; experiments in cold immersion ('in freezing water') to determine the body's reactions and susceptibilities; experiments with mustard gas in order to study the kinds of wounds it can cause; experiments in the regeneration of bone, muscle, nerve tissue, and on bone transplantation, involving removal of various bones, muscles, and nerves from healthy women."
14 Jan 1942: A team from the mental patient euthanasia program (20-30 people) move into the extermination site at Chelmno and activate a killing program for Polish Jews and Gypsies. Methods used in T4 and 14f13 euthanasia projects are extended to expand the genocide. The killing of the weak and diseased or mentally incompetent in camps is simply expanded to include anyone viewed as undesirable, setting the stage for the "final solution" in an attempt to eliminate all Jews and other "non-Aryans." Interestingly, suicide in these camps is forbidden and considered a serious breach of discipline.
1942: Approximately 1,000 prisoners in Germany are subjected to X-ray castrations.
May 1942: The policy of exterminating people unable to work begins with an order from the camp physician of Auschwitz.
1942: First autopsy report of brain damage from ECT.
1942: Bini suggests the repetition of ECT many times a day, naming the method "annihilation therapy."
1943: At least fifteen to twenty healthy girls, half-Jewish, are brought to Hadamar. They are all killed by injection.
1943: Nazi Dr. Schneider requests permission to kill mental patients from his research ward for study.
1943: Greenburg and Spiegal use sodium pentothal on North African pilots and call it "narcosynthesis."
1943: Albert Hoffman, a Swiss chemist, develops LSD, lauded by many psychiatrists as being useful in understanding psychosis. (Later, in the 1980s, many psychiatrists will view the drug "ecstasy" in the same light).
1943: Nazi psychiatrist Pfannmuller establishes two starvation houses for adults.
August 1943: 4,000 Jews are selected out and killed at the camp at which Mengele is the chief physician.
1944: Dr. Gelny, director of the Mauer-Ohling institution in Austria, kills many mental patients with electroshock, including one at a demonstration at a psychiatric congress.
1945: Lancet, a major British medical journal, publishes "Sterilization of the Insane in the USA." The article, based on information from the Journal of the American Medical Association, cites roughly 42,000 cases of sterilization between 1941 - 1943. California leads all states with 10,000. Among the victims: "Insane" - 20,600; "Feeble Minded" - 20,453. 1945 To date, at least 400,000 Germans have been sterilized.
"patently ridiculous, you know, that Psychiatrists caused the Holocaust"
Thursday, May 28, 2009
Don't hold your breath listening for Success Stories here, ...... because, ...... as ever, ...... Psychiatry Has NO CURES, ..... Psychiatry Does have DRUGS, MONEY, and an INCURABLE BELIEF In ITSELF, ..... .
Some of this posts Links are already on the side, but we couldn't resist. So have some fun with us: especially the Link we haven't yet hit at 1:59 "Used To That".
0:36: "While we do have data showing that people increasingly BELIEVE in the validity of Psychiatric Disorders, "
0:42: "and increasingly BELIEVE that they're treatable, "
0:56: "people out there who are suffering from Psychiatric Illnesses, "
0:59: "will be scared away from effective treatment, ..... "
1:15: "we know that people increasingly feel good about Psychiatry, "
Then WHY do those people who've Been Psychiatrized call themselves Psychiatric SURVIVORS, as if they survived the GD Bataan Death March?
1:22: (the public) increasingly THINK that DISEASES are REAL
1:28: they understand that it's a DISEASE and that it's TREATABLE
1:36: we've taken, to put ACCURATE information out there. ..... " Where?
1:59: 'we have demonstrators marching up and down in front of our meeting. We're Used to THAT, I'm afraid, .....
2:22: patently ridiculous; that Psychiatrists Caused the Holocaust, .....
2:46: "no other medical specialty group that I know of that has its own particular Hate Group.
(We're Shocked I tell you, Shocked and Amazed, ..... considering that for a medical group to BE medical, there has to BE something Medically Discernible, with Lab Tests, Blood tests, etc.)
FACT: 1: Psychiatric Treatment - and its Psychiatric Drugs - have CAUSED a 1000% Increase in confusion, psychotic meltdowns, real diseases, and Death in the last Century. (pg 11)
FACT: 2: The APA receives 1/3 of its FUNDING From the makers of those Psychiatric DRUGS.
FACT: 3 : NO autopsy has EVER Found any evidence of Mental ILLNESS in those condemned as Ill by Psychiatry, until AFTER Psychiatry has Poisoned, Electrocuted, or Lobotomized that person.
BTW: We, are not Scientologist, nor are we affiliated with Scientology. And Furthermore;
We, ..... Don't, ...... Care, What Scientologists believe, ....... because it's None of Our damn Business to Care, one way or the Other, ..... any more than it is Any of Our damn business to Care what Christians, Jews, Muslims, Buddhists, Hindus, Shriners, Elks, and Stamp Collectors Believe.
Scientology is a 1st Amendment RIGHT. Period.
"Congress shall make NO LAW, respecting an establishment of Religion, ...... . "
Psychiatry is a 1st Amendment VIOLATION. Period.
So What is Congress doing, not only Respecting it, but Funding it?
As to scoring this vid on Points, it's:
Scientology +1: even though they were maligned and Not given time to rebut Nada's Disease Mongering, ..... BECAUSE
Psychiatry & its Toxic Opinions/Drugs Are Extremely Harmful
1 HOLOCAUST RIDICULOUS
All of which are complete, and Utter, Non-Science.
Grassley Points To Another Academic Doctor's Industry Pay
..... Companies that made payments such as consulting and speaking fees to Wang included medical-device makers Medtronic and FzioMed and the DePuy unit of Johnson & Johnson. Grassley says Wang “consistently checked no” on UCLA disclosure forms when asked whether he had received income of $500 or more from companies funding his clinical research. All three companies were sponsoring research by Wang at the time of the payments, WSJ reports. Grassley says UCLA told him that Wang “erred in completing” the disclosures. .....Erred? In completing the disclosures?
This goes back to our prima facia contention that:
1: These people are too Stupid to retain a physician's license.
2: They're Not too stupid, they're far Worse.
And before anyone is tempted to equate these sorts of non disclosed highjinks in medicine with those in the banking and securities sector:
Being Robbed, even of your life savings, is Not on the same footing with being Dead, due to Medical Money Acey Duecy.
Once again: Thank You Senator Grassley.
Wednesday, May 27, 2009
Tuesday, May 26, 2009
Monday, May 25, 2009
Scientists Find 'Happyhour' Gene
Does it occur to You, ..... that if You were being Poisoned with a Drug to treat Cancer, that You might feel shitty enough Not to want to tie one on, on Top of it?
..... There are a bunch of cancer drugs that inhibit the cellular proteins stimulated by EGF. The researchers gave one of the drugs, Tarceva, to rats that were already used to consuming large amounts of alcohol. They then presented the rats with both alcohol and water, and let the animals make the choice. The rats reduced their alcohol consumption, favoring water, Heberlein tells us.
Heberlein says she’d like to find out whether Tarceva has the same effect in humans. She notes that it took relatively low doses of Tarceva in rats to have that effect, so there’s some hope that it would also be possible to use a low dose of the drug in people. That’s important, since it could be a problem to give high doses of powerful cancer drugs to patients who don’t have cancer. .....
..... The study was funded by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, the Department of Defense and the state of California. Genentech and OSI Pharmaceuticals donated the Tarceva, Heberlein said. .....
See the Bonkers Institute for:
Utilization Of Placebo Rat Poison In Clinical Trials: Raising The Bar From Sugar Pill To Rodenticide
This Bureaucracy on a Drunken Treadmill is Why a toilet seat on a aircraft carrier costs thousands of dollars.
Our Department of Defense is funding the Poisoning of Rats with drugs to treat Cancer, to keep them off the Hootch which the Department of Defense is Buying for those Rats in the 1st place, ..... with the end game being the expanded marketing approval/infliction of a Drug to Treat a Real Disease: Cancer.
Saturday, May 23, 2009
See: Dr F. Baughman To Military: Embargo All Antipsychotics & Antidepressants
Matthew died two hours after he was born.
See the links in our previous post.
We Threw $40.3 Billion Dollars Into the Psych Drug Rat Hole last year alone. None of these drugs, and None of their Sales Force have Ever cured a Single person, of Any of Psychiatry's own incurably 'mentally ill' opinions, ..... .
Thursday, May 21, 2009
Abilify: Abortion, Abortion Induced, Abortion Missed, Abortion Spontaneous
Adderall: Abortion Induced
Celexa: Abortion, Abortion Induced, Abortion Missed, Abortion Spontaneous
Clozapine: Aborted Pregnancy, Abortion, Abortion Missed, Abortion Spontaneous
Cymbalta: Abortion Induced, Abortion Spontaneous
Depakote: Abortion, Abortion Induced, Abortion Spontaneous
Effexor: Abortion Early, Abortion Induced, Abortion Missed, Abortion Spontaneous, Abortion Spontaneous Incomplete
Geodon: Abortion Spontaneous
Klonopin: Abortion, Abortion Induced, Abortion Spontaneous
Lamactil: Aborted Pregnancy, Abortion, Abortion Induced, Abortion Missed, Abortion Spontaneous, Abortion Threatened
Lexapro: Abortion, Abortion Induced, Abortion Missed, Abortion Spontaneous, Abortion Spontaneous Complete
Neurontin: Abortion, Abortion Induced, Abortion Spontaneous, Abortion Threatened
Paxil: Abortion Induced, Abortion Spontaneous, Abortion Threatened
Prozac: Abortion Induced, Abortion Spontaneous
Risperdal: Abortion, Abortion Incomplete, Abortion Induced, Abortion Spontaneous
Ritalin/Concerta: Abortion Induced, Abortion Spontaneous
Seroquel: Abortion Incomplete, Abortion Induced, Abortion Missed, Abortion Spontaneous
Strattera: Abortion Induced, Abortion Spontaneous
Tegretol: Abortion, Abortion Induced, Abortion Spontaneous, Abortion Threatened
Wellbutrin: Abortion, Abortion Induced, Abortion Missed, Abortion Spontaneous
Xanax: Abortion Induced, Abortion Spontaneous
Zoloft: Abortion, Abortion Early, Abortion Induced, Abortion Missed, Abortion Spontaneous
Zyprexa: Abortion Induced, Abortion Spontaneous, Abortion Threatened
The Mothers Act hasn't been stopped yet. This hideous inversion of human rights wants to drug 4.3 Million women, Every year in America, for becoming mothers.
Amy has an essay we want you to read.
We hope this one will get you on the phone.
Proof of You.
Contact your elected representatives and inform them of your opposition to the Mothers Act.
Breast cancer is a cancer that starts in the cells of the breast in women and men. Worldwide, breast cancer is the second most common type of cancer after lung cancer (10.4% of all cancer incidence, both sexes counted) and the fifth most common cause of cancer death. In 2004, breast cancer caused 519,000 deaths worldwide (7% of cancer deaths; almost 1% of all deaths).
Breast cancer is a malignant tumor that starts from cells of the breast. A woman's breast is made up of glands that make breast milk (called lobules), ducts (small tubes that carry milk from the lobules to the nipple), fatty and connective tissue, blood vessels, and lymph vessels. Most breast cancers begin in the cells that line the ducts, some begin in the lobules, and a small number start in other tissues. 
Abilify: Breast Cancer, Breast Discharge, Breast Engorgement, Breast Feeding, Breast Pain, Breast Tenderness
Adderall: Breast Pain
Celexa: Breast Cancer, Breast Cancer Female, Breast Cancer In Situ, Breast Cancer Stage Iii, Breast Haemorrhage, Breast Mass
Clozapine: Breast Cancer, Breast Cancer Female, Breast Cancer In Situ, Breast Cancer Metastatic, Breast Cancer Recurrent, Breast Cancer Stage IV, Breast Cosmetic Surgery, Breast Fibroma, Breast Tenderness
Cymbalta: Breast Abscess, Breast Cancer Recurrent, Breast Cyst, Breast Discharge, Breast Discomfort, Breast Disorder Male, Breast Engorgement, Breast Pain, Breast Swelling, Breast Tenderness
Depakote: Breast Cancer, Breast Cancer Metastatic, Breast Cyst, Breast Cyst Drainage, Breast Discharge, Breast Malformation, Breast Mass, Breast Oedema, Breast Swelling
Effexor: Breast Cancer, Breast Cancer Female, Breast Cyst, Breast Discharge, Breast Discomfort, Breast Dysplasia, Breast Engorgement, Breast Pain, Breast Tenderness
Geodon: Breast Atrophy, Breast Cancer, Breast Cancer Female, Breast Cyst, Breast Discharge
Klonopin: Breast Cancer, Breast Mass, Breast Pain
Lamactil: Breast Abscess, Breast Cancer, Breast Cancer Female, Breast Cyst, Breast Discharge, Breast Disorder, Breast Engorgement, Breast Hyperplasia, Breast Mass, Breast Pain, Breast Swelling, Breast Tenderness
Lexapro: Breast Abscess, Breast Cancer Female, Breast Cancer In Situ, Breast Cyst, Breast Discharge, Breast Discomfort, Breast Mass, Breast Tenderness
Neurontin: Breast Cancer, Breast Cancer Female, Breast Cancer Male, Breast Cancer Metastatic, Breast Cancer Recurrent, Breast Cancer Stage I, Breast Cyst, Breast Disorder Male, Breast Mass, Breast Oedema, Breast Pain
Paxil: Breast Cancer, Breast Cancer Female, Breast Cancer In Situ, Breast Cancer Male, Breast Cancer Metastatic, Breast Cancer Recurrent, Breast Cancer Stage II, Breast Cyst, Breast Discharge, Breast Disorder Male, Breast Engorgement, Breast Feeding, Breast Haemorrhage, Breast Infection, Breast Mass, Breast Microcalcification, Breast Neoplasm, Breast Pain, Breast Swelling, Breast Tenderness
Prozac: Breast Abscess, Breast Cancer, Breast Cancer Female, Breast Cancer In Situ, Breast Cancer Metastatic, Breast Discharge, Breast Enlargement, Breast Tenderness
Risperdal: Breast Abscess, Breast Cancer, Breast Cancer Female, Breast Cancer In Situ, Breast Cancer Male, Breast Cancer Recurrent, Breast Cancer Stage III, Breast Cyst, Breast Discharge, Breast Haemorrhage, Breast Mass, Breast Neoplasm, Breast Pain, Breast Swelling, Breast Tenderness
Ritalin/Concerta: Breast Neoplasm
Seroquel: Breast Cancer, Breast Cancer Female, Breast Cancer In Situ, Breast Discomfort, Breast Pain, Breast Swelling
Strattera: Breast Discharge, Breast Disorder, Breast Pain, Breast Tenderness
Tegretol: Breast Cancer Metastatic, Breast Dysplasia, Breast Operation
Wellbutrin: Breast Cancer, Breast Cyst, Breast Discharge, Breast Disorder, Breast Engorgement, Breast Enlargement, Breast Feeding, Breast Mass, Breast Pain, Breast Tenderness
Xanax: Breast Cancer, Breast Cancer Female, Breast Neoplasm, Breast Operation, Breast Pain, Breast Swelling
Zoloft: Breast Cancer, Breast Cancer Female, Breast Cancer In Situ, Breast Cyst, Breast Discharge, Breast Engorgement, Breast Lump Removal, Breast Mass, Breast Pain, Breast Tenderness
Zyprexa: Breast Cancer, Breast Cancer Female, Breast Cancer In Situ, Breast Cancer Male, Breast Cancer Metastatic, Breast Cancer Recurrent, Breast Cancer Stage II, Breast Cyst, Breast Discharge, Breast Disorder Male, Breast Engorgement, Breast Feeding, Breast Haemorrhage, Breast Infection, Breast Mass, Breast Microcalcification, Breast Neoplasm, Breast Pain, Breast Swelling, Breast Tenderness
Wednesday, May 20, 2009
TDD (202) 514-1888
Attorney General Holder And HHS Secretary Sebelius Announce New Interagency Health Care Fraud Prevention & Enforcement Action Team
Attorney General Holder and Health and Human Services (HHS) Secretary Kathleen Sebelius today announced the creation of a new interagency effort, the Health Care Fraud Prevention and Enforcement Action Team (HEAT), to combat Medicare fraud. Holder and Sebelius also announced the expansion of Strike Force team operations to Detroit and Houston. Medicare Fraud Strike Forces, currently in operation in South Florida and Los Angeles, fight Medicare fraud on a targeted local level.
"With this announcement, we raise the stakes on health care fraud by launching a new effort with increased tools, resources and a sustained focus by senior-level leadership," said Attorney General Holder. "Every year we lose tens of billions of dollars in Medicare and Medicaid funds to fraud. Those billions represent health care dollars that could be spent on medicine, elder care or emergency room visits, but instead are wasted on greed. This is unacceptable, and the Justice Department is committed to working with the Department of Health and Human Services to eradicate it."
"Today, we are turning up the heat on perpetrators who steal from the taxpayers and threaten the future of Medicare and Medicaid," said Secretary Sebelius. "Most providers are doing the right thing and providing care with integrity. But we cannot and will not allow billions of dollars to be stolen from Medicare and Medicaid through fraud, waste and serious abuse of the system. It’s time to bring the fight against fraud into the 21st century and put the resources on the streets and out into the community to protect the American taxpayers and lower the cost of health care."
The HEAT team will include senior officials from DOJ and HHS who will build upon and strengthen existing programs to combat fraud while also investing new resources and technology to prevent fraud, waste and abuse before it happens. Efforts will include the expansion of joint DOJ-HHS Medicare Fraud Strike Force teams that have been successfully fighting fraud in South Florida and Los Angeles. Established in 2007, these teams have a proven record of success using a "data-driven" approach to identify unexplainable billing patterns and investigating these providers for possible fraudulent activity. The Medicare Fraud Strike Force team operating in South Florida has already convicted 146 defendants and secured $186 million in criminal fines and civil recoveries. After the success of operations in South Florida, the Medicare Fraud Strike Force expanded in May 2008 to phase two in Los Angeles, where 37 defendants have been charged with criminal health care fraud offenses. To date in the Los Angeles cases, more than $55 million has been ordered in restitution to the Medicare program.
"We know these strike forces work. I believe a targeted civil and criminal enforcement strategy in these locations will have a substantial impact on deterring fraud and abuse, protecting patients and the elderly from scams, and ensuring that taxpayer funds are not stolen," said Attorney General Holder.
Prevention is critical to reforming the system and the HEAT team will also focus critical resources on preventing fraud from occurring in the first place. The team will build on demonstration projects by the HHS Inspector General and the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services that focus on suppliers of durable medical equipment (DME). These projects increase site visits to potential suppliers to prevent imposters from posing as legitimate DME providers. Other initiatives include:
Increasing training for providers on Medicare compliance, offering providers the resources and the knowledge they need to help identify and prevent fraud.
Improving data sharing between the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services and law enforcement so we can identify patterns that lead to fraud.
Strengthening program integrity activities to monitor and ensure Medicare Parts C (Medicare Advantage plans) and D (prescription drug programs) compliance and enforcement.
The Attorney General and the HHS Secretary also called on the American people to visit a new Web site www.hhs.gov/stopmedicarefraud or call 1-800-HHS-TIPS (1-800-447-8477) to report suspected Medicare fraud.
"The American people are some of our best weapons in the fight against Medicare fraud," added Sebelius. "Fraud is happening in communities across the country right now and we need the American people to blow the whistle on thieves and criminals who are stealing from all of us."
Fraud prevention efforts are also strengthened in President Obama’s proposed Fiscal Year 2010 budget. The President’s budget invests $311 million – a 50 percent increase from 2009 funding – to strengthen program integrity activities within the Medicare and Medicaid programs. Combined, the anti-fraud efforts in the President’s budget could save $2.7 billion over five years by improving oversight and stopping fraud in the Medicare and Medicaid programs, including the Medicare Advantage and Medicare prescription drug programs.
We, are Not affiliated with the DOJ, HHS, or any other Govt Agency, but in Our opinion;
This, is REAL Health Care Reform.
Wednesday, May 20, 2009
Dartmouth Psychiatrist Facing Dept. of Justice Charges
"William Weeks, MD a professor of psychiatry and community and family medicine is facing federal conflict of interest charges" involving contract between the Veterans Affairs department and Dartmouth.
The Dartmouth news reports that "The U.S. Attorney’s office also filed an 11-count civil complaint against Weeks on Friday, including six counts of conflict of interest, four counts of false claims and one count of “breach of fiduciary duty.” Most of his time has been spent conducting research and administering multiple VA programs.
If convicted, Dr. Weeks faces a maximum possible penalty of one year in prison and fines of up to $100,000 for each criminal count, as well as a maximum possible fine of $1.3 million in penalties for the civil complaint, according to the press release.
Prestigious academic institutions are finding that faculty members in the department of psychiatry are becoming a liability--their misconduct and sometimes erratic behavior undermines the institution's reputation.
For more see:
The Dartmouth DMS prof. faces federal charges
Tuesday, May 19, 2009
WELLSBURG - Circuit Judge Martin Gaughan has imposed a penalty of nearly $4.5 million on drug maker Johnson & Johnson for false and misleading promotion of antipsychotic drug Risperdal and painkiller Duragesic.
Gaughan found 4,450 separate violations of West Virginia consumer fraud law.
He imposed the maximum $5,000 penalty on 400 Risperdal sales calls and 100 Duragesic sales calls. He imposed $500 penalties on 3,900 Risperdal sales letters and 50 Duragesic file cards. That totals $4,475,000.
Johnson & Johnson might have celebrated, for Attorney General Darrell McGraw originally sought more than $20 million.
Instead the company served notice that it would appeal.
McGraw sued Johnson & Johnson in 2004 in Brooke County, claiming it didn't tell customers that Risperdal increased the risk of diabetes.
Chief Deputy AG Fran Hughes signed the complaint. She appointed then-law partners Teresa Toriseva and Barry Hill of Wheeling as special assistants.
Hill amended the complaint to add a claim that Johnson & Johnson concealed the addiction risk of Duragesic.
Rebecca Betts of Charleston answered for Johnson & Johnson that contingency fees for Toriseva and Hill would violate due process.
Hughes replied that Johnson & Johnson would suffer no harm from the fee arrangement and lacked standing to challenge it.
Last year Gaughan set the stage for trial by denying summary judgment to Johnson & Johnson and finding its promotions false and misleading.
At trial in September, Johnson & Johnson proposed to count the Risperdal letters as a single violation.
The company continued to deny that it misled anyone, but Gaughan had made up his mind and didn't appreciate the argument.
In a Feb. 25 order, he wrote that Johnson & Johnson still didn't accept that their promotions were false and misleading.
He rejected its claim that it wasn't conscious of wrongdoing.
"A mass marketing campaign should not be counted as merely one violation as the deterrent effect of a $5,000 civil penalty is minimal," he wrote. "Defendants directly disobeyed a direct Food and Drug Administration mandate to include diabetes warning language within its Risperdal promotional materials."
Hill represented the state at trial. He and Toriseva no longer work together.
Toriseva sent a letter to Gaughan on March 2, claiming a portion of the fees.
Gaughan can't do anything about it, for on March 30 he granted a joint motion to stay post trial proceedings pending appeal to the West Virginia Supreme Court of Appeals.
Johnson & Johnson's insurer, Federal Insurance, posted a $5,414,750 appeal bond.
Fred A. Baughman Jr., MD Announces: Vets' Sudden Cardiac Deaths Are Not Suicides or Overdoses
EL CAJON, Calif., May 19 /PRNewswire/ -- Fred A. Baughman Jr., MD today announced the results of his research into the "series" of veterans' deaths acknowledged by the Surgeon General of the Army.
Upon reading the May 24, 2008, Charleston (WV) Gazette article "Vets taking Post Traumatic Stress Disorder drugs die in sleep," Baughman began to investigate why these reported deaths were "different." And, why they were likely, the "tip of an iceberg."
Andrew White, Eric Layne, Nicholas Endicott and Derek Johnson were four West Virginia veterans who died in their sleep in early 2008. Baughman's research suggests that they did not commit suicide and did not overdose as suggested by the military. All were diagnosed with PTSD. All seemed "normal" when they went to bed. And, all were on Klonopin (a benzodiazepine), Paxil (an SSRI antidepressant) and Seroquel (an antipsychotic).
On January 15, 2009, the New England Journal of Medicine (Ray et al), reported that antipsychotics double the risk of sudden cardiac death.
On February 7, 2008, Surgeon General Eric B. Schoomaker, said there has been "a series of deaths in Warrior Training Units" -- "often as a consequence of the use of multiple prescription and nonprescription medicines and alcohol ... we all saw the unfortunate death of Heath Ledger, the 'Brokeback Mountain' star, who died from an accidental overdose."
But Ledger was not on any heart-toxic medication. When found, his pulse and respirations were intact! When found, none of the veterans were breathing or had pulse. There's, most likely, were sudden cardiac deaths!
Sudden cardiac death is an unexpected death due to cardiac causes occurring in a short time period (generally within 1 h of symptom onset) in a person with known or unknown cardiac disease in whom no previously diagnosed fatal condition is apparent. (Medscape e-Medicine 7/17/06)
As of April 16, 2009, veteran's wife, Diane Vande Burgt, had Googled 19 "dead in bed," 36 "dead in barracks," or "... room," and 19 "under investigation." Removing reported "suicides" shortened our original list by 15 names leaving a total of 74 probable sudden cardiac deaths - most in soldiers or veterans in their 20's. An article from the AP, San Antonio, 4/17/09, reported "The deaths of two soldiers are being investigated ... both men apparently died in their sleep."
It was reported in June, 2008, that 89% of veterans with PTSD are given antidepressants and 34% antipsychotics (Mohamed & Rosenheck, June 2008). A third, then, are exposed to the additive potential of both to cause sudden cardiac death. (Sicouri & Antzelevitch, 2008)
On April 13, 2009, Baughman wrote the Office of the Surgeon General of the Army: "the Surgeon General said there has been 'a series, a sequence of deaths' Has the study of these deaths been published?
On April 17, 2009, the response came: "The assessment is still pending and has not been released yet."
There being no such thing as an essential psychiatric drug, I call upon the military for an immediate embargo of all antipsychotics and antidepressants until there has been a complete, wholly public, clarification of the extent and causes of this epidemic of probable sudden cardiac deaths.
For more information, please email Fred A. Baughman Jr., MD at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Mental Health: Comes With FREE Cardiac Arrest
Mental Health: Comes With FREE Sudden Death
Published in the July 2005 Issue of PLoS Medicine
Formal Correction: This article has been formally corrected to address the following errors.
Patrick F. Sullivan
Citation: Sullivan PF (2005) The Genetics of Schizophrenia. PLoS Med 2(7): e212. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0020212
Published: July 26, 2005
Copyright: © 2005 Patrick F. Sullivan. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Competing interests: The author declares that he has no competing interests.
Patrick F. Sullivan is at the Departments of Genetics, Psychiatry, and Epidemiology at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, United States. E-mail: email@example.com
Research into the etiology of schizophrenia has never been as interesting or as provocative as in the past three years. There has been progress on several fronts, but particularly regarding the molecular genetics of this complex disorder of mind and brain. At the same time, a number of critically important and unresolved issues remain that qualify the ultimate clinical and scientific validity of the results. However, the recent progress in this historically difficult area of inquiry does not seem to be widely appreciated. The purpose of this article is to provide a high-level review of progress, its limitations, and the implications for clinical research and clinical practice.
The public health importance of schizophrenia is clear. The median lifetime prevalence of schizophrenia is 0.7–0.8% , with onset typically ranging from adolescence to early adulthood and a course of illness typified by exacerbations, remissions, and substantial residual symptoms and functional impairment . Morbidity is substantial, and schizophrenia ranks ninth in global burden of illness . In addition, schizophrenia is often comorbid with drug dependence (principally alcohol, nicotine, cannabis, and cocaine) and important medical conditions (obesity, Type 2 diabetes mellitus) . Mortality due to natural and unnatural causes is considerable, and the projected lifespan for individuals with schizophrenia is some 15 years less than the general population . The personal, familial, and societal costs of schizophrenia are enormous.
Etiological Clues Top
A substantial body of epidemiological research has established a set of risk factors for schizophrenia. A subset of this work is summarized in Figure 1. Of a large set of pre- and antenatal risk factors , having a first-degree relative with schizophrenia is associated with an odds ratio of almost ten. The general impact of some of the risk factors in Figure 1 remains uncertain, and, additionally, migrant status, urban residence, cannabis use, and biological sex are supported as risk factors for schizophrenia. Although the attributable risk of some of these risk factors may be greater (e.g., place and season of birth) , the size of the odds ratio for family history suggests that searching for the familial determinants of schizophrenia is rational for etiological research.
Unpacking the Family History Risk Factor Top
Studies of families, adoptees, and twins have been widely used to attempt to understand the relative contributions of genetic and environmental effects upon risk for schizophrenia. These “old genetics” approaches use phenotypic resemblance of relatives as an indirect means by which to infer the roles of genes and environment. There are many important assumptions and methodological issues with these studies ; however, genetic epidemiological studies of schizophrenia have yielded a remarkably consistent set of findings, as summarized in Table 1 [9, 10].
Table 1. Summary of Studies of the Genetic Epidemiology of Schizophreniadoi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0020212.t001
To summarize this literature briefly, schizophrenia is familial, or “runs” in families. Both adoption and twin studies indicate that the familiality of schizophrenia is due mainly to genetic effects. Twin studies suggest the relevance of small but significant shared environmental influences that are likely prenatal in origin. Thus, schizophrenia is best viewed as a complex trait resulting from both genetic and environmental etiological influences. These results are only broadly informative, as they provide no information about the location of the genes or the identity of the environmental factors that predispose or protect against schizophrenia. Searching for genetic influences that mediate vulnerability to schizophrenia is rational, given the larger overall effect size and lesser error of measurement in comparison to typical assessments of environmental effects. Note that high heritability is no guarantee of success in efforts to identify candidate genes.
Genomewide Linkage Studies of Schizophrenia Top
Modern genotyping technologies and statistical analyses have enabled the discovery of genetic loci related to the etiology of many complex traits , such as Type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, and Alzheimer's disease. These “discovery science” approaches have been applied to schizophrenia, and are summarized in Figure 2. The 27 samples shown here included from one to 294 multiplex pedigrees (see Glossary) (median 34) containing 32 to 669 (median 101) individuals affected with a narrow definition of schizophrenia. There were 310 to 950 (median 392) genetic markers in the first-stage genome scans.
Figure 2. Summary of Genomewide Linkage Studies of Schizophrenia
The x-axis shows the location on the genome, from the telomere of the short arm of Chromosome 1 to the telomere of the long arm of Chromosome 22 (bottom row) along with 303 band chromosomal staining on the second-to-bottom row. The y-axis shows the 27 primary samples that reported first-stage genome scans for schizophrenia (i.e., excluding fine-mapping or partial reports) along with the results of a meta-analysis including most of the primary samples  (studies not included are shown with asterisks). Within each row, the height and color of the bars are proportional to the –log10(P-value), and the width of the bar shows the genomic location implicated by a particular sample. A selected set of candidate genes for schizophrenia are also shown. All genomic locations are per the hg16 build (http://genome.ucsc.edu). The physical positions of an inclusive set of the markers showing the best findings in the primary samples were plotted (assuming a confidence interval of ± 10 cM or, if mapping was uncertain, ± 10 megabases; seven markers from the primary samples did not map).doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0020212.g002
“Hard” replication—implication of the same markers, alleles, and haplotypes in the majority of samples—is elusive. It is evident from Figure 2 that these studies are inconsistent, and no genomic region was implicated in more than four of the 27 samples. (emphasis added) The Lewis et al. meta-analysis  included most of the studies in Figure 2 and found that one region on Chromosome 2 was stringently significant and several additional regions neared significance. Our focus on first-stage genome scans does not adequately capture the evidence supporting replication for certain regions (e.g., 6p) [13–18]. However, there appears to be “soft” replication across studies.
It is unlikely that all of these linkage findings are true. The regions suggested by the Lewis et al. meta-analysis implicate more than 3,000 genes (18% of all known genes). For the 27 samples in Figure 2, the percentages of all known genes implicated by 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 linkage studies were 42%, 35%, 14%, 6%, and 3%, respectively. This crude summation suggests that linkage analysis is an imprecise tool—implausibly large numbers of genes are implicated and few genes are consistently identified in more than a small subset of studies.
There are several potential reasons why clear-cut or “hard” replication was not found. With respect to the teams that conducted these enormously effortful studies, it is possible that no study possessed sufficient statistical power to detect the subtle genetic effects suspected for schizophrenia. For example, it would require 4,900 pedigrees to have 80% power to detect a locus accounting for 5% of variance in liability to schizophrenia at α = 0.001. These calculations make highly optimistic assumptions, and less favorable assumptions can lead to sample size requirements above 50,000 sibling pairs. For comparison, the total number of pedigrees in Figure 2 is less than 2,000.
In addition, it is possible that etiological heterogeneity (different combinations of genetic and environmental causes between samples) and technical differences (different ascertainment, assessment, genotyping, and statistical analysis between samples) contributed; however, their impact is uncertain, whereas insufficient power is clear. If correct, the implication is that Figure 2 contains a mix of true and false positive findings.
Association Studies of Schizophrenia Top
Schizophrenia—like most other complex traits in biomedicine—has had a large number of genetic case-control association studies . Although research practice is changing, interpretation of many studies is hindered by small sample sizes and a tendency to genotype a single genetic marker of the hundreds that might be available in a gene. For example, a widely studied functional genetic marker in COMT (rs4680) is probably not associated with schizophrenia , but nearby genetic markers assessed in a minority of studies may be .
However, as discussed in the next section, a number of methodologically adequate association studies of schizophrenia appear to support the role of several candidate genes in the etiology of schizophrenia. Similar to the linkage study data, “hard” replication remains elusive.
Despite the limitations of the accumulated linkage and association studies, there are good suggestions that these studies have identified plausible candidate genes for schizophrenia. Table 2 summarizes the evidence in support of a set of possible candidate genes for schizophrenia. Reports supporting the role of many of these genes have appeared in top-tier international journals known for rigorous peer review. The evidence for several genes is encouraging but currently insufficient to declare any a clear-cut cause of schizophrenia.
Table 2. Evidence Supporting 12 Potential Candidate Genes for Schizophreniadoi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0020212.t002
The accumulated data provide particular support for DISC1, DTNBP1, NRG1, and RGS4. Each of these genes has received support from multiple lines of evidence with imperfect consistency: 1) The case for each of these as a candidate gene for schizophrenia is supported by linkage studies; 2) The preponderance of association study findings provides further support; 3) mRNA from each gene is expressed in the prefrontal cortex as well as in other areas of the brain; and 4) Additional neurobiological data link the functions of these genes to biological processes thought to be related to schizophrenia. For example, DISC1 modulates neurite outgrowth, there is an extensive literature on the involvement of NRG1 in the development of the CNS, and RGS4 may modulate intracellular signaling for many G-protein-coupled receptors. Moreover, DTNBP1 and RGS4 have been reported to be differentially expressed in postmortem brain samples of individuals with schizophrenia.
This encouraging summation of work in progress masks a critical issue—the lack or consistent replication for the same markers and haplotypes across studies. The literature supports the contention that genetic variation in these genes is associated with schizophrenia, but it lacks impressive consistency in the precise genetic regions and alleles implicated. In contrast, association studies of other complex human genetic diseases have produced unambiguous, consistent, and clear-cut (“hard”) replication. For example, 1) in Type 1 diabetes mellitus, the bulk of both the linkage and association data implicate the HLA region and INS ; 2) for Type 2 diabetes mellitus, there are a number of findings in the literature where the association evidence appears to be consistent and compelling (CAPN10, KCNJ11, and PPARG)—the data indicate that the same marker allele is significantly associated and has an effect size of similar direction and magnitude  (the linkage data are less congruent, probably due to power considerations); and 3) for age-related macular degeneration, at least five studies show highly significant association with the same CFH Y402H polymorphism [23–27] in a region strongly implicated by multiple linkage studies. For these findings, the data are highly compelling and consistent and provide a solid foundation for the next generation of studies to investigate the mechanisms of the gene–phenotype connection. Power/type 2 error appears to be a major factor—if the genetic effect is sufficiently large (HLA in Type 1 diabetes mellitus or CFH in age-related macular degeneration)—or, if the sample size is large, then there appears to be a greater chance of “hard” replication.
*At present, the data for schizophrenia are confusing, and there are two broad possibilities. The first possibility is that the current findings for some of the best current genes are true. This implies that the genetics of schizophrenia are different from other complex traits in the existence of very high degrees of etiological heterogeneity: schizophrenia is hyper-complex, and we need to invoke more complicated genetic models than other biomedical disorders. The alternative possibility is that the current findings are clouded by Type 1 and Type 2 error. Schizophrenia is similar to other complex traits: it is possible that there are kernels of wheat, but it is highly likely that there is a lot of chaff. At present, the second and more parsimonious possibility has not been rigorously excluded. The impact of Type 1/Type 2 error is likely, and it is not clear why schizophrenia should be inherently more complex. At present, we cannot resolve these possibilities.
Public Health Implications Top
The public health importance of schizophrenia is clear, and the rationale for the search for genetic causes is strong. Schizophrenia research has never been easy: the current epoch of investigation into the genetics of schizophrenia provides a set of tantalizing clues, but definitive answers are not yet fully established. Findings from the accumulated literature appear to be more than chance yet sufficiently variable as to render “hard” replication elusive. The currently murky view of this literature may result from the competing filters of Type 1 and Type 2 error. The current literature could be a mix of true and false positive findings; however, it would be a momentous advance for the field if even ONE of the genes in Table 2 were a true positive result.
This body of work is not yet ready for wholesale translation into clinical practice. However, it is not premature to inform patients that this work is advancing and that it holds promise for new insights into etiology, pathophysiology, and treatment on the five- to ten-year horizon. On a larger scale, the treatment of the mentally ill mirrors the humanity of a society; in many societies, the return image is not flattering. If a specific genetic variation were proven to be causal to schizophrenia, this poor reflection might improve .
Multiplex pedigree: A family grouping of genetically related individuals with multiple affected individuals.
First-stage genome scan: An initial survey of the genome to identify regions that may contain genetic variants that could cause the disease under study. Subsequent stages focus on a smaller genomic region.
Type 1 error: The probability of rejecting a true null hypothesis (akin to a false positive result).
Type 2 error: The probability of accepting a false null hypothesis (akin to a false negative result).
- Saha S, Welham J, Chant D, McGrath J (2005) The epidemiology of schizophrenia. PLoS Med 2: e141. Find this article online
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Medicare IS Govt/Single Payer Health Care.
Medicare Will be bankrupt by 2018.
Medicare is a Pyramid/Ponzi Scheme.
Pyramid/Ponzi Schemes are Illegal for Everyone to rig, ...... Everyone Except Govt.
What happens if Psychiatric Genetics Researchers get even a Nudge closer to finding Schizophrenia Genes? (which is Highly unlikely given the complexity of the material they're Researching)
Do you Really think some Govt Bureaucrat Won't fudge the numbers all around, to cover a budget shortfall?
It's not as though we haven't already Seen that type of murderous Cost Cutting in action.
WWII: 69 Million DEAD.
In the beginning, it was just, get rid of those Schizophrenics, and, ..... we'll all be Better than just Healthy. We'll be 'Mentally Healthy'.
Do we Really need to re-learn this lesson, the hard way?
Stop funding it, and it goes away.